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1. Two sovereign masters over society. (Bentham)

Pain and pleasure.


2. The object of the principle of utility. (Bentham)

The object is to rear the fabric of felicity by the hands of reason and flaw.


3. Describe the principle of utility. (Bentham)

The principle approves or disapproves every action whatsoever, on the basis of whether or not it augments or diminishes happiness of a party whose interest is in question. It can be applied to every individual and the government.


4. Two ways the Principle may oppose utility. (Bentham)

  • Ascetism, which augments pain.
  • Sympathy and antipathy, which causes us to decide whether things are right or wrong based on whether we like or dislike them.


5. What must we do in order to follow principle of utility, since we cannot run through all the calculations? (Bentham)

We must consider intensity, duration, certainty/uncertainty, propinquity, fecundity, purity, and extent.


1. What’s the one thing that is called good without qualification? (Kant)

A good will.


Three propositions of morality. (Kant)

  • a. For an action to be good, it must come of duty.
  • b. If an action has moral worth, it must be free from inclination (a view to the end result).
  • c. It must be done out of respect to law.


Define hypothetical and categorical imperatives. (Kant)

  • Hypothetical: Always commands with a result ending in desire. It is only good for a purpose.
  • Categorically: Command that tell us the action in and of itself is good. Objectively necessary.


One categorical imperative of morality. (Kant)

A categorical imperative of morality is purely a priori. It is an act only according to that maxim by which you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.


Practical categorical imperative of morality. (Kant)

Act so that you treat humanity always as an end and never as a means only, whether in your own person or that of another.


How do we get the practical law? (Kant)

Through reason.


What are the differences between psychological and ethical altruism?

  • Psychological altruism - People "naturally" act for each other's sakes.
  • Ethical altruism - Says that people ought to act with each other's interests in mind (The Golden Rule)


What points are illustrated by the shepherd in The Ring?

The point of the story shows that if we were truly invisible, man may not always act for the sake of other people's interests, and would enslave himself to his appetites. Basically, the actions of the just would be as the actions of the unjust.


Three kinds of life.

  • The life of enjoyment (pleasure).
  • The life of the statesman (to seek honor).
  • The contemplative life (philosophy).


What is the function of man?

The exercise of his vital faculties (or soul) on one side in obedience to reason and on the other side with reason. AKA Live life of rational nature and do it well and beautifully, in accordance to proper excellence.


Virtues are means between streams. List moral virtues by Aristotle.

  • Wisdom.
  • Courage.
  • Temperance.
  • Generosity.
  • Liberality.
  • Munificence.
  • Sincerity.
  • Modesty.
  • Good temper.
  • Right ambition.


What is Locke's definition of an animal in "Personal Identity?"

An animal is a living, organized body.


What is Locke's description of a human?

A human is a living, organized body of a certain shape.


In "Personal Identity" Locke defines the word 'person.' What is his description of a person?

A thinking intelligent being who is able to reflect, and is conscious of being the same self in past places and times.


What is it, according to Locke, that gives each person a personal identity?

A consciousness.


According to Locke, how far back does a person's identity reach?

A person's identity extends as far as he or she's consciousness extends.


Locke also offers a definiton of self. How does Locke define 'self?'

A self is mental, physical and spiritual, able to feel pain and pleasure, happiness and misery, and so is concern for itself.


According to Locke, when is a person's body a part of their identity?

If a person is able to extend their consciousness to their past, then they are a person. A person is a body united with consciousness.


Locke asserts that identity consists not in the identity of substance, but in the identity of what?

The idea of consciousness.


According to Locke, how is it that we can be confident that we will have a future?

We are conscious of our past and present, so we are confident that we will be conscious in our future.


What, according to Locke, is the forensic term that serves as a name for the self?

A person.


According to Smart, what is it that science is increasingly causing us to see organisms as kind of mechanisms?

Physio-chemical mechanisms.


This view means that one day we will be able to explain human behavior in a certain type of terms. What type of terms might be used to explain human behavior?

Mechanistic terms.


What is the object of Smart's paper "Sensations and Brain Processes?"

The object is to prove that there is no compelling argument for dualism.


What is the thesis of "Sensations and Brain Processes?"

Sensations are nothing more than brain processes.