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1

What is Motivation?

The level, direction and persistence of effort expended at work.
- Ability x Motivation x Situation = Performance
- Managers can influence all of these factors
- A highly motivated workforce is indispensable to the achievement of sustained high-performance results

2

The motivation process

Involves:
- Needs
- Cognitive activities
- Behaviour
- Rewards/ reinforcement

3

(Maslow's) hierarchy-of-needs theory

-Needs are physiological or psychological deficiencies a person feels the compulsion to satisfy
( we want what we don't have)
- Motivation largely an automatic process
Five basic need sets:
1. Physiological needs
2. Security needs
3. Love or social needs
4. Esteem needs
5. Self-actualisation needs

4

Two underlying principles of motivation

Deficit principle:
- a satisfied need is not a motivator of behaviour
- people act to satisfy 'deprived' needs, those for which a satisfaction 'deficit' exists
Progression principle:
- the five needs exist in a hierarchy of 'prepotency'
- a need at any level only becomes activated once the next-lower-level need has been satisfied

5

What are the managerial implications?

-Employees can always be expected to want more.
-Once a lower level needs are satisfied, other things become important.
Employees on different levels should be treated differently
But....
- Research has found little consistent support e.g. more a need is met, more important it can become

6

Alderfer's ERG theory

Three basic need sets:
1. Growth (esteem & self-actualisation)
2. Relatedness (social & esteem needs)
3. Existence (physiological & security needs)
Not hierarchical- all needs can be influenced at the same time
- people can move between the need sets
- frustration-regression principle = already satisfied need can become reactivated if higher level needs cannot be satisfied

7

What are the managerial implications?

- Different things motivate different people (consistent woth Maslow's theory)
- Employees may try to fulfil many needs at the same time
- Growth needs are important for all - if these are not met, employees may lose interest

8

Herzberg's two-factor theory

Deals with both work motivation and job satisfaction
1. Hygiene/maintenance needs
- external, lower needs
- produce job dissatisfaction when unmet (and the lack of job dissatisfaction when met)
2. Motivator/satisfier needs
- internal, higher needs
- produce job satisfaction when met (and lack of satisfaction when unmet)

9

What are the managerial implications?

- pay attention to job context (associated with hygiene factors) to take care of job dissatisfaction
- pay attention to job content (associated with satisfier factors) to increase satisfaction and motivation.
e.g. low pay can make someone dissatisfied but paying more will not necessarily satisfy or motivate them

10

Motivation theories

- expectancy
- equity
- goal setting
- reinforcement theory

11

Vroom's expectancy theory

Motivation depends on individuals' expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards
- Expectancy = the belief that efforts are linked to performance
- Instrumentality = the belief that performance us related to rewards
- Valence = the importance placed on the expected reward

12

Equity theory

- Based on the principle of social comparison
- People are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance
- if receive more/less, we are motivated to act to bring equity

13

Possible responses to perceived inequity

- change inputs = less effort
- change rewards = ask for better treatment
- change the way you think about inputs/rewards
- change the comparison
- quit

14

implications for management

- two-way communication to understand perceptions of (in)equity
- ensure employees know the 'rules' of outcome allocation relative to inputs
- transparent and open communication

15

Goal-setting theory

- SMART rules for goals ( specific, measurable, actionable, reasonable and timetabled)
-The notion of goal as a motivational factor
- Goal = object or aim of an action
- Specific
- Challenging
- Build acceptance and commitment
- Goal priorities
- Feedback
- Reward accomplishment

16

Implications for management

- Management by objectives
- Make sure goals are properly set i.e. SMART goals
- Manage goals e.g. by giving feeback

17

Reinforcement theory

- Environmental consequences are important
- Law of effect: if behaviour is rewarded, it is likely to occur again
"learning by reinforcement"
- organisational behaviour modification - the application of operant conditioning techniques to influence human behaviour at work

18

What are the managerial implications?

- tell employees what behaviours will be rewarded
- what is considered 'rewarding' differs between people - managers must check if behaviour changes
- careful with negative reinforcement and punishment - harmful consequences in the long term = if used should be administered quickly and consistently

19

What is leadership?

Leading - the process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks
- One of the four functions of management

20

Power

Ability to get someone else to do something you want or make things happen the way you want.
Position power - based on things managers can offer others
1. Reward
2. Coercion
3. Legitimacy
Personal power - based on the ways managers are viewed by others
1. Expert
2. Referent

21

Turning power into influence

Keys to developing personal power:
- expertise
- effort and hard work
- likeable personal qualities
- behaviour that supports values
Keys to developing position power:
- Centrality
- Support
- Visibility

22

Which leadership style works best?

Two dimensions of leadership style:
1. Concern for task/results
2. Concern for people

23

Contingency theories (Situational leadership model)

Hersey-Blanchard
- Leaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers to perform in a given situation
Readiness = how able, willing and confident followers are in performing tasks

24

What is human resource management?

ensuring the organisation has the right number of people, with the required knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies, at an affordable cost, who are motivated and committed to achieving the strategic aims of the organisation

25

Roles of human resource management

- Developing effective workforce
- Maintaining effective workforce
- Attracting effective workforce

26

How do organisations develop a quality workforce?

1. Socialisation
- Process of influencing the expectations, behaviour and attitudes of a new employee in a way considered desirable by the organisation
- To achieve the best possible fit between individual, the job and the organisation
2. Orientation
- Set of activities designed to familiarise new employees with their jobs, coworkers and key aspects of the organisation
e.g. explaining job expectations, communicating policies and procedures

27

Why have a PM system?

Part of HRM responsibility is the design and implementation of a successful performance management systems where:
- performance standards and objectives are set
- performance is regularly assessed
- actions are taken to improve performance potential in the future

28

Performance appraisal

- Formally assessing someone's work accomplishments and providing feedback
- The two broad purposes of performance appraisal =
1. Evaluation - let people know where they stand relative to objectives and standards
2. Development - assist in training and continue personal development of people

29

Information about employee performance can by found using:

1. Objective Production Data
2. Personal Data
3. Judgemental Data ( ratings)

30

1. Objective Production Data

Quantitative data used to evaluate performance
e.g. sales volume, number of objects produced
but...
-variability is often outside employee's control
e.g. car part not in stock
performance = motivation x ability x situation
- they rarely tell the whole story