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Flashcards in FINAL EXAM Deck (13)
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The Apocalypse

-Noun is not modified in any way
a. it could be 'an apocalypse' or 'the apocalypse'
b. It could be "of Jesus Christ" or "from Jesus Christ"


"What must soon take place"

A clause that anticipates the content of the rest of the book

-the inevitable upcoming clash between the church and the Empire over who should rightly be proclaimed "Lord and Saviour"


As Prophecy

-There is a future aspect to this prophecy but it is primarily a word spoken into the present situation of the seven churches
a. the urgency of this message is not given in reference to the final future events (Chs 20-22), but to the near future

-For John, the prophetic nature of his work is that:
a. He has 'seen' the inevitable future clash between the church
b. He is speaking the word of God (testimony) into that situation; vs 2


Concluding Benediction

-The blessing is on those who hear the words
a. Echo: Those who hear/obey

-"for the time is near"
a. For those who were already experiencing persecution, this book offered a way in which to understand it
b. For those who would be facing it very soon, it was preparation


Apocalyptic Literature

-a type of subversive literature, prophesying cataclysmic judgments on their persecutors
-These writers are not looking for God to bring about redemption within history, they picture God as bringing a cataclysmic end to history


Prophecy in the Early Church

1. Oracles, spoke in the name of God of Christ
2. Reports of Visions - prophets had received revelation in order to pass it on


The combination of Apocalypse and Prophecy

-John and his readers are taken up into heaven in order to see the world from a heavenly perspective
-He is also transported in the vision into the final future of the world, so that he can see the present from perspective of what its final outcome must be, in God's ultimate purpose for human history
HIS readers' perspective is expanded spatially (into heaven) and temporally (into the eschatological feature)


3 key ideas of letters

1. The whole of Revelation is a letter, not just the 7 letters
2. The seven messages provide seven different introductions to the rest of the book
3. The seven churches are representatives of all churches


Structure of letters

1. Command to write to the angels
2. Christ's self-identification and divine omniscience
3. Commendation for good (except Laodicea)
4. Criticism for sin (except for Smyrna, Philadelphia)
5. Exhortation to repent (except for Smyrna, Philadelphia)
6. Spiritual hearing, let them hear
7. Promise to the overcomer


Church in Ephesus

-"I know your deeds, toil, and perseverance, and that you cannot tolerate evil men, and you can call false apostles, and you have persevered for My name's sake, and have not grown weary"

-"You have fallen away from your first love"

-"Remember from the height that which you have fallen, repent, and do the deeds you did at first, or I will come to you and remove the lamp stand outside of its place - unless you repent

REV 2:10 would be convicting for the church in Ephesus
"do not be afraid of what you are about to suffer, some of you will be thrown in prison, may even be persecuted to the point of death, be faithful and i will give you life as your victors crown"

REV 3:11 "Im coming soon, hold fast what you have, so that no one may cease your crown"


The response of the people to the Holy War

Climax: The dragon (the beast) receives worship
What John offers his readers in both
1. A prophetic word about the satanic nature of Rome and its emperors
2. A clear warning to God's people regarding what is to come for them: captivity and or death

It is not surprising then that he concludes with a final call for "patient endurance and faithfulness on the part of God's people"



PAR 1: Generalizations on the book of Revelation
-can be intimidating because of the apocalyptic language and harsh judgment
-there are certain clues throughout the book of Revelation that can guide reader into discovering truth and meaning in Rev (moment of origin, moment of composition, canonicity of revelation, history of interpreting revelation)

PAR 2: History of canonicity of revelation
-author assumes that because of including of Rev in NT, the early church recognized the canonical role of Rev
-some believers have described Rev as their 'canon within a canon'

PAR 3: History of interpreting Revelation
- 5 different interpretations


4 different interpretions

end-historical; visions given to John to predict in detail two future periods of human history

church historical; rev is predictive prophecy

non historical; work of theological poetic power

contemporary historical;

a canonitical approach has more to do with perspective toward scripture than with technique