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A renal corpuscle includes the

A) glomerulus and bowman's capsule
B) glomerulus and renal tubule
C) glomerulus capsule and renal tubule
D) renal tubule and collecting duct

glomerulus and bowman's capsule

1

Which of the following is correct concerning the location of the kidneys?

A) The right kidney is usually higher than the left one.
B) They are located behind the peritoneum.
C) Their upper borders are about at the level of the third lumbar vertebra.
D) They are located against the anterior wall of the abdominal cavity.

They are located behind the peritoneum

2

Which of the following indicated the parts of the renal tubule in correct sequence from beginning to end?

A) proximal convoluted tubule,ascending limb, descending limb, distal convoluted tubule.
B) distal convoluted tubule, ascending limb, descending limb, proximal convoluted tubule.
C) proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule.

Proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule.

3

If the arteriole that supplies blood to the glomerulus become constricted,

A) blood flows into the efferent arteriole increase.
B) the glomerular filtration rate decrease.
C) hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular increase.
D) the protein concentration of the filtrate increase.

The glomerular filtration rate decrease.

4

The reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the

A) glomerulus capsule
B) nephron loop
C) proximal convoluted tubule
D) distal convoluted tubule

proximal convoluted tubule. (by active transport)

5

Whenever the plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma threshold,

A) the glomerular filtration rate increase.
B) the volume of urine decrease.
C) glucose will be secreted into the peritubular capillary.
D) glucose will appear in the urine

glucose will appear in the urine

6

Whenever sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active transport, chloride ions are

A) resorbed by active transport
B) resorbed by passive transport
C) secreted by active transport
D) secreted by passive transport

resorbed by passive transport

7

The counter current mechanism functions primarily in the

A) renal corpuscle
B) proximal convoluted tubule
C) distal convoluted tubule
D) descending limb of the nephron loop.

descending limb of the nephron loop. ( particularly of the juxtamedullary nephrons)

8

The hormone ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the wall

A) distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
B) proximal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
C) ascending limb of the nephron loop
D) descending limb of the nephron loop

distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct

9

The largest quantity of hydrogen ions is secreted

A) passively into the proximal convoluted tubule.
B) passively into the distal convoluted tubule.
C) actively into the proximal convoluted tubule.
D) actively from the distal convoluted tubule.

actively into the proximal convoluted tubule.

10

The ureter extends downward

A) behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from above.
B) behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from below.
C) in front of the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from above
D) in front of the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from below

behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from below.

11

The micturition reflex center is located in the

A) sacral segment of the spinal cord
B) medulla oblongata
C) pons
D) hypothalamus

Sacral segment of the spinal cord.

12

Which of the following is not part of the male urethra?

A) prostatic urethra
B) membranous urethra
C) penile urethra
D) glandular urethra

glandular urethra

13

Which of the following would increase the rate of the glomerular filtration?

A) decrease blood pressure
B) increase blood pressure
C) a constricted afferent arteriole
D) dilated efferent arteriole

increase blood pressure

14

Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?

A) regulation of body fluid concentration.
B) regulation of body fluid volume
C) removal of waste products from the body
D) formation of plasma proteins

formation of plasma proteins

15

Which of the following correctly list the order of structure through which urine flow after its formation in the nephron?

A) calyx,renal pelvis, ureter,urinary bladder, urethra
B) renal pelvis, calyx,ureter, urinary bladder,urethra
C) renal pelvis, calyx urethra, ureter, urinary bladder
D) renal pelvis, calyx,urinary bladder, ureter, urethra

calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra

16

In which of the following portions of the nephron is water actively transport?

A) proximal convoluted tubule
B) descending limb of the nephron loop
C) collecting duct
D) ascending limb of the nephron

Ascending limb of the nephron

17

Conscious control of micturition inhibiting the micturition reflex by using nerve centers in the

A) medulla oblongata
B) spinal cord
C) brain stem and cerebral cortex
D) pons and hypothalamus

brain stem and cerebral cortex

18

Which of the following is an abnormal constituent of urine?

A) urea
B) uric acid
C) creatine
D) none of the above

none of the above

19

Which of the following correctly describes the countercurrent mechanism of the nephron loop?

A) water moves out of the ascending limb; sodium moves in the ascending limb
B) water moves in the ascending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb.
C) water moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb
D) water moves in the descending limb; sodium moves out of the descending limb

water moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out the ascending limb

20

Gout is a condition in which the plasma has an abnormally high concentration of

A) uric acid
B) urea
C) calcium ions
D) amino acids

uric acid

21

As a result of excessively low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure

A) rises and filtration increase
B) rises and filtration decrease
C) drops and filtration increase
D) drops and filtration decrease

drops and filtration decrease

22

What is the purpose of the countercurrent mechanism in the nephron?

A) It creates a highly concentrated interstitial fluid so that urine can be concentrated by collecting ducts when they are permeable to water.
B) It is a method sodium so that its concentration can be controlled
C) It keeps the amount of water lost in the urine relatively constant so that a person does not retain much water
D) It keeps interstitial fluid hydrated to maintain blood pressure.

It creates a highly concentrated fluid so that urine can be concentrated by the collecting ducts when they are permeable to water.

23

As a consequence of widespread edema, blood volume

A) increase and blood pressure drops
B) decrease and blood pressure drops
C) increase and blood pressure rises
D) decrease and blood pressure rises

decrease and blood pressure drops

24

Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be

A) excreted and water to be conserved.
B) excreted and water to be excreted.
C) conserved and water to be conserved
D) conserved and water to be excreted

Conserved and water to be conserved

25

Infants are more likely to become dehydrated than adults because

A) adults drink more liquids
B) infants grow rapidly
C) infants kidneys are less able to conserve water
D) the infant thirst mechanism is underdeveloped

infants kidneys are less able to conserve water

26

During a kidney transplant procedure, the renal artery and vein of the donor kidney are connected to the recipient's

A) renal artery and vein
B) iliac artery and vein
C) aorta and inferior vena cava
D) aorta and portal vein

iliac artery and vein

27

Renal clearance is a test to determine the rate at which the kidney can

A) excrete water
B) reabsorb water
C) remove a particular substance from the blood
D) restore a particular substance from the blood

remove a particular substance from the blood

28

Kidney stones are least likely to be composed of

A) uric acid
B) calcium ions
C) cholesterol
D) magnesium phosphate

cholesterol

29

The renal medulla is composed of _____, where as the the renal cortex is composed of____

A) renal pyramids; ureters from nephrons
B) renal columns; renal pyramids and nephrons
C) collecting tubules; peritubular capillaries from nephrons
D) renal pyramids; granular tissue composed of nephron tubules

renal pyramid; granular tissue composed of nephron tubules