Flashcards in Final Deck (196)
________ correlation indicate that two factors increase or decrease together
_________ correlations indicate that as one factor increases, the other decreases
A selected segment that very closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristics.
A questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group.
Highly detailed description of a single individual or a small group of individuals., used to investigate rare, unusual, or extreme conditions
In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except the independent variable; the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared.
The systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting.
The purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment;
The factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment, thought to be influenced by the independent variable
behaviorism is the view the psychology:
Should be an objective science and study behaviors without taking mental processes into account
The __________ ____________ focuses on mental process, memory, perception, language, problem solving, and thinking
In an ____ ___________, the researcher deliberately varies one factor, then measures the changes produced in a second factor.
________ indicates that one event is the result of the occurrence of the other event; i.e. there is a causal relationship between the two events. This is also referred to as cause and effect.
_______ _______ defined psychology as the study of consciousness and emphasized the use of experimental methods to study and measure consciousness.
______ __. _________ believed that psychology is the study of behavior
John B Watson
founder of American Psychology, didn’t do experiments - only observations, stressed importance that behavior and consciousness function to allow people and animals to adapt to their environments
studied the unconscious mind, founded psychoanalysis: the belief the repressed thoughts fuck you up but if you bring them to the surface they go away
(similar to Watson) believed that psychology should restrict itself to studying outwardly observable behaviors that could be measured and verified, Believed that internal thoughts, beliefs, emotions, or motives could not be used to explain behavior
-founded observational learning ie. learning by observing others, imitating models, and without direct experience
- led Bobo doll experiment
_________ _____ ___________ created the Law of Effect, which states that responses followed by a satisfying effect become strengthened and are more likely to recur in a particular situation, and that responses followed by a dissatisfying effect are weakened and less likely to recur in a particular situation
Edward Lee Thorndike
_______ _______ developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth, autonomy, and a hierarchy of needs
The support cells that assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes; manufacture myelin.
the part of a cell that processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell’s nucleus
The multiple short fibers that extend from a neuron’s cell body and receive information from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells
The long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron’s messages to other neurons, muscles, and glands
A white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication speed
gaps in the myelin sheath
nodes of ranvier