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1

________ correlation indicate that two factors increase or decrease together

positive

2

_________ correlations indicate that as one factor increases, the other decreases

negative

3

A selected segment that very closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristics.

representative sample

4

A questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group.

surveys

5

Highly detailed description of a single individual or a small group of individuals., used to investigate rare, unusual, or extreme conditions

case study

6

In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable.

experimental group

7

In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except the independent variable; the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared.

control group

8

The systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting.

naturalistic observation

9

The purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment;

independent variable

10

The factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment, thought to be influenced by the independent variable

dependent variable

11

behaviorism is the view the psychology:

Should be an objective science and study behaviors without taking mental processes into account

12

The __________ ____________ focuses on mental process, memory, perception, language, problem solving, and thinking

cognitive perspective

13

In an ____ ___________, the researcher deliberately varies one factor, then measures the changes produced in a second factor.

lab experiment

14

________ indicates that one event is the result of the occurrence of the other event; i.e. there is a causal relationship between the two events. This is also referred to as cause and effect.

causation

15

_______ _______ defined psychology as the study of consciousness and emphasized the use of experimental methods to study and measure consciousness.

Wilhelm Wundt

16

______ __. _________ believed that psychology is the study of behavior

John B Watson

17

founder of American Psychology, didn’t do experiments - only observations, stressed importance that behavior and consciousness function to allow people and animals to adapt to their environments

William James

18

studied the unconscious mind, founded psychoanalysis: the belief the repressed thoughts fuck you up but if you bring them to the surface they go away

Sigmund Frued

19

(similar to Watson) believed that psychology should restrict itself to studying outwardly observable behaviors that could be measured and verified, Believed that internal thoughts, beliefs, emotions, or motives could not be used to explain behavior

BF Skinner

20

-founded observational learning ie. learning by observing others, imitating models, and without direct experience
- led Bobo doll experiment

Albert Bandura

21

_________ _____ ___________ created the Law of Effect, which states that responses followed by a satisfying effect become strengthened and are more likely to recur in a particular situation, and that responses followed by a dissatisfying effect are weakened and less likely to recur in a particular situation

Edward Lee Thorndike

22

_______ _______ developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth, autonomy, and a hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow

23

The support cells that assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes; manufacture myelin.

glial cells

24

the part of a cell that processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell’s nucleus

cell body

25

The multiple short fibers that extend from a neuron’s cell body and receive information from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells

dendrites

26

The long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron’s messages to other neurons, muscles, and glands

axon

27

A white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication speed

myelin sheath

28

the nucleus:

contains chromosomes

29

gaps in the myelin sheath

nodes of ranvier

30

the process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach from a post-synaptic neuron and are reabsorbed by a presynaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again

reuptake