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1

semiotics

study of sign

2

hermeneutics

interpretation/meaning of a sign
sense: meaning of sign
reference: about what of sign

3

characteristics of semiotics

1. difference: sign can have multiple meanings
2. absence: allow us to communicate signs without having object present
3. it is a gift (present): something given OR right now (gifting sign/knowledge)

4

sign

not an object
word to indicate object

5

deSaussure

calls into question binary structure of sign
signifier --> signified --> object

6

meaning of signs

based on difference of what signs compose them (relationship between 2 signifiers)
also based on what signs are used to define them

7

parole

someone says or writes something about something to someone
has cartesian element (author)

8

derrida

created word differance
1. differ (to be different from)
2. defer (to push aside/do later)
can only tell apart from "difference" textually

9

messianic meaning

meaning always to come
discover new meaning tomorrow or find out meaning/interpretation is wrong

10

descartes on anthropology

mind (we are a mind) and body (we have a body)

11

mind/body problem

how do we explain how they interact
stress/anxiety/worry affect bodily health

12

Leidness

no connection between mind and body
certain set of physiological events and mind events (may occur at same time but only by mere chance)
similar to hume's ideas on appearance vs. reality

13

ethics

typically used to talk about identity of group
what differentiates them/defines them
references being

14

morality

behavior (answer by giving list of behaviors they think are right/wrong)
what they do/do not do

15

ethical question

who are you and how do you relate what you do to who you are
character comes out in behavior

16

Ricoeur on ethics

believes all ethics in some fashion adheres to structure I-You
I: there is a speaker/author
you: other, to who i'm responding (another "I" who is responsible for responding

17

I-you on 2nd commandment

love your neighbor as yourself
when loving neighbor you're loving another self and other person has ethical responsibility back to you
depersonalize other means you don't have to respond ethically

18

Ricoeur on "it"

says be sensitive to "it" because it can be both positive and negative (can enhance response or lessen it)

19

Emmanuel Levinas

emphasizes other (difference/otherness)
says you don't start with ethical subject "I" but instead with "you"
can't respond unless there is a prior address which creates ethical context in which you now have ability to respond
ethical responsibility comes from other calling me which puts me in obligation to respond
says there is always at least 1 other "other"
how we respond leads to justice

20

me voici

"see me here" or "here i am"
story of isaiah telling God "here i am, send me"
proper ethical response to sum of the other

21

other "other"

balance between responsibility to other and to other others
(give extra credit to one person have to give to everyone)

22

derrida on third and justice

abraham willing to sacrifice son (third)
says someone always has to get left out/sacrificed so you can respond to other (when helping other you're ignoring other other)

23

categories of ethic

1. deontology (kant)
2. consequentialism (aristotle)

24

deontology

theories of ethics that references duty as the basis for ethics
more objective/identifiable (transpersonal)
addresses issue of what is right/wrong

25

consequentialism

make choices based on consequences of actions
focuses on good/bad (context dependent)
more subjective

26

christian situationalism

Fletcher
ethics you follow if you follow Jesus must be situational ethic
developed legalism (10 commandments) and antinomianism (against law)

27

legalism

different between catholics and protestants

28

catholic legalism

natural law which God instilled in universe and in humans as conscious
tells you what is naturally right vs. naturally wrong

29

protestant legalism

biblicism (focus on scripture)
laws found in bible (divine command)

30

antinomianism

against the law
becomes foundation for reformation