___________ plays a fundamental role weaving the tapestry of culture in all societies.
The most effective strategy humans have developed to form stable, reliable, separate and deeply connected groups that can last over time and through generations is __________.
Kinship creates a system of both ________ and _______.
lineage & stability
Kinship is defined as:
the system of meaning and power that cultures create to determine who is related to whom and to define their mutual expectations, rights, and responsibilities.
Kinship is a network of relatives within which individuals possess certain ______________________.
mutual rights and obligations
What were the "Jim Crow" laws?
Laws implemented after the US Civil War to legally enforce segregation, particularly in the South, after the end of slavery.
Give some examples of the "Jim Crow" laws.
White only swimming pools, restaurants, schools, beaches
What is hypodescent?
"One drop rule". If a child has any non-white "lesser" blood then that child is considered of the "lesser" race and NOT white.
What rule assigns the children of racially mixed unions to the subordinate group?
What is the idea that government policies should favor people born in the United States over immigrants such as Mexicans or Canadians?
People who believe that civic policies should favor native-born people over immigrants illustrates the concept of
Races are _______ categories not biological categories.
All humans share approximately ______% identical DNA.
What is eugenics?
An attempt to scientifically prove the existence of separate human races to improve the population genetics by favoring one race over another.
What are 2 types of racism?
- Individual racism
- Institutional racism
What is individual racism?
Individual people holding prejudices against socially perceived races. Can be intentional or unintentionally / active or passive.
ex: locking car doors in a bad neighborhood
not renting to a particular race due to past experience with that race
A person who believes that Italians are somehow inferior and therefore refuses to give an Italian person a job is demonstrating ______.
- racist ideology
- white supremacy
- individual racism
3. individual racism
Type of racism that is patterned by racial inequality and is structured through key cultural institutions, policies, and systems.
aka structural racism
can happen in the education, health, employment and legal systems.
ex: whites do not get "profiled" as often as other races
Jim Crows laws, expropriation of indigenous lands, and immigration restrictions are examples of __________ racism.
What is Peggy McIntosh study?
Found whites benefit from an institutional history of racism whether they themselves are racist or not:
- better access to economic and educational benefits
- Fewer incidents of profiling
- less scrutiny for loans and financial transactions
What is the main force that encourages nativism?
Threating periods such as economic depressions or rising external threats.
ex: 9/11 and midNextdle east
What are some forces that work for nativism?
- need for cheap labor
- the nation's conviction of its ability to assimilate all peoples
The process of categorizing differentiating, and attributing a particular racial character to a person or group of people.
ex: people of Middle East have been considered "white" until Next9/11 now they are considered different or foreign.
Racial ____ is a set of popular ideas about race that allows the discriminatory behaviors of individuals and institutions to reasonable rational, and normal.
An analytic framework for assessing how factors such as race, gender, and class interact to shape individual life chances and societal patterns of stratification.
What is race?
A flawed system of classification with no biological basis, that uses certain physical characteristics to divide the human population into supposedly discrete groups.
Individual thought and actions and institutional patterns and policies that create unequal access to power, privilege, resources, and opportunities based on imagined differences among groups.
A _______ is an inherited genetic factor that provides the framework for an organism's physical form.
A ________ is the way genes are expressed in an organism's physical form as a result of genotype interaction with environmental factors such as nutrition, disease, and stress.
A demeaning historical term for interracial marriage.