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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (44)
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1

The systematic study of human society and social interaction.

Sociology.

2

French sociologist, stressed that people are the productof their social environment and that behavior cannot be understood fully in terms of individual biological and psychological traits.

Emile Durkheim

3

German economist and philosopher, stressed that history is a continuous clash between conflicting ideas and forces.

Karl Marks

4

German social scientist; was also concerned about the changes brought about by the industrial revolution.

Max Weber.

5

Founded the second department of sociology in the United States at Atlanta University.

W. E. B. Du Bois

6

Perspectives that are based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system.

Functionalist.

7

According to ______ perspectives, groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.

Conflict.

8

According to _______ perspectives, society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups.

Symbolic interactionist.

9

According to _____ perspectives, existing theories have been unsuccessful in explaining social life in contemporary societies that are characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications.

Postmodern.

10

The goal is scientific objectivity and the focus is on data that can be measured numerically.

Quantitative research.

11

Interpretive descriptions (words) rather than statistics (numbers) are used to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships.

Qualitative research.

12

The process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries.

Industrialization.

13

The process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities rather than rural areas.

Urbanization.

14

A ______ analysis examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems instead of looking at important social dynamics in individuals' lives.

Macrolevel.

15

A _____ analysis focuses on small groups rather than large-scale social structures.

Microlevel.

16

6 step research process:

1. Select and define the research problem.
2. Review previous research
3. Formulate the hypothesis
4. Develop research design.
5. Collect and analyze the data.
6. Draw conclusions and report findings.

17

A statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables.

Hypothesis.

18

Any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary from one person, time, situation, or society to another.

Variable

19

The extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.

Validity

20

The extent to which a study or research instrument yeilds consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or the same individuals over time.

Reliability.

21

A research method in which researchers use existing material and analyze data that were originally collected by others.

Secondary analysis.

22

They systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data and draw conclusions about social life.

Content analysis.

23

A carefully designed situation in which the researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects attitudes or behavior.

Experiment.

24

The persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society.

Agents of socialization.

25

A set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs.

Social institution.

26

a small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like.

Sample.

27

a technique of field research, used in anthropology and sociology, by which an investigator (participant observer) studies the life of a group by sharing in its activities.

Participant observation.

28

systems that allow interactions between their internal elements and the environment.

open system.

29

Relatively low-paying, nonmanual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women.

pink-collar occupations.

30

The income standard that is based on what the federal government considers to be the minimum amount of money required for living at a subsistence level.

official poverty line.