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area's where diversity is necessary for success

sources and audiences


how to show appreciation for diversity in writing

Balance personal pronouns (he/she)
Avoid words that describe particular
Know dates of major religious holidays/
Don’t use physical descriptions
Aim for diversity in photos and other design


ethical decisions are based on what?

Public interest
Employer or client
Professional organization’s code of ethics
Personal values



it's most effective when it's a win win
Remember, your audience is asking " what's in it for me? "


three uses for persuasion

Change or neutralize hostile opinions (most difficult)
Develop latent opinions
Maintain favorable opinions


aristotles approach to persuasion

Logos – Appeal to intellect or logic
Pathos – Appeal to emotions
Ethos – Appeal to speakers character, or source credibility


Cheney and Tompkin’s four principles that should guide persuasive negotiations.

Empathy – Truly Listen
Guardedness – Just because you listen doesn’t mean you have to change your opinion
Accessibility – Be willing to consider that you might be wrong


Monroe’s Motivation Sequence:

Attention – Get noticed
Need – Describe a problem (discovered by listening)
Satisfaction – Solution that benefits audience
Visualization – Explain consequence of inaction
Action – tell them what to do to enact solution


Informative Speeches

Goal is to increase an audience’s understanding and awareness of the speech’s subject
Relevance of the subject should be clear early; unfamiliar terms should be defined throughout
Supporting materials should be chosen carefully in order to make the greatest impact in the most effective way possible


Persuasive Speeches

Goal is to get an audience to “buy something”—a person, thing or action
Key messages should be personally relevant to the audience and demonstrate how a behavior change, product purchase, or vote benefits them
An emotional appeal that does not arouse fear or anxiety can help move the audience to act on the appeal of the speech


Special-Occasion Speeches

Most special occasions are an opportunity for a principal or an organization or company to deliver a desired message
Speech should identify the purpose of the special occasion and acknowledge the tone of the event in the speech
Purpose can be to entrain, celebrate, commemorate, motivate, persuade, or inspire


no no's for speeches

poor presentation, lack of credibility, stats instead of emotion


goals of speeches in general

aim for a reaction


format of speeches

intro, body, conclusion


why are websites helpful?

Create easy access to info for reporters and journalists, easy interaction with public, free adversing. Should inform, entertain, persuade..


style for websites

Clear, concise and easy to navigate.

Written in HTML

Include useful and direct information

Well-written copy; follow grammar/spelling rules

Short, clear sentences

Avoid long paragraphs and use bullets

Incorporate headlines, subheads, boldface


What are blogs?

A blog is a type of website built around a series of posts (also called entries).

Posts are separate (usually short) articles, each with a title and body.
Usually each post includes a section for reader comments.
Blogs generally are posted with the most recent entries first.


Blog pages

contain info that doesn't change ( makes a blog more like a website


disadvantages of blogs

lack of objectivity


blog vs website

Blog: Designed for easy updates and interaction between the organization and readers.

Blog: Every article can invite and display reader comments, allowing readers to interact not only with the organization but also with each other.

Blog editors generally can disable specific comments if they feel the reader has posted something contrary to the editorial policy of the blog.
Websites: Provide much more information and can allow readers to drill down through various layers of information.
Websites: Used for static information, as a sort of online brochure.
Websites: Offer navigation around the site, a blog pretty much lays it all out in a single view, with time-stamped articles presented in chronological fashion (newest to oldest).
The differences between websites and blogs are disappearing,


amount of time you have to catch the readers attention

5 seconds



An unfolded sheet meant to:
Be read as a single unit
Provide time-specific information
Increase awareness about a topic



Tends to be headlines, pull-quotes, etc. Over 12 point.



The design of a single set of letterforms, numerals, and signs unified by consistent visual properties.



Type font is a complete set of letterforms, numerals, and signs, in a particular face, size, and style, that is required for written communication.


type family

A type family is several font designs contributing a range of style variations based upon a single typeface design.


type style

Modifications in a typeface that create design variety while retaining the essential visual character of the face.


point and pica

point is the height of type, pica is the width



space between two characters



spacing for a group of letters