Flashcards in Feline Deck (30)
What are the possible presentations of a cat with HCM?
1) Any age, M more severe
2) Compensated--only CS is heart murmur
3) CHF (tachypnea, dyspnea, wt. loss, anorexia)
4) Aortic thromboembolism
List 4 differentials for secondary HCM
1) Systemic hypertension
3) Subaortic stenosis
What 2 breeds of cat are genetically predisposed to HCM?
Maine coon, Ragdoll; autosomal dominant (MyBPC mutation)
What are 3 key treatments for chronic feline HCM?
Diuretics (furosemide), diet (low Na, palatable), dilator (enalapril, atenolol, diltiazam/amlodipine)
What are 4 signs of aortic thromboembolism in the cat?
Pain, paralysis, pallor, pulselessness
List 4 findings on an echocardiogram diagnostic of HCM
1) Concentric L. ventricular hypertrophy
2) > 6mm septum or L. ventricular free wall
3) Papillary hypertrophy
4) L. atrial enlargement
List 4 radiographic findings suggestive of HCM
DV: valentine heart, L atrial bulge (1-3 o'clock), elongated heart
Lateral: elevated trachea, round heart silhouette
What is a typical presentation of a cat with feline infectious peritonitis?
Young cats (6mo-2yrs), males, multi-cat environment;
CS: ascites, malaise, dyspnea, weak, effusion fluid, lack of other dz dx
What are 5 tests for FIP and their positive results?
1) Glob/alb--hyperglobulinemia w/ low alb/glob ratio (0.9)
2) Effusion analysis--nonseptic exudate (high protein, low cells)
3) FcoV serology--titers > 1:16000 suggestive if FIP CS present (+ ONLY indicates exposure)
4) CSF analysis--high protein (>20mg/dL, >5 cells/mcL, mononuclear pleocytosis w/ neuts
5) Alpha1 acid glycoprotein--plasma or effusion >1500ug/dL suggests FIP
What is the definitive diagnostic test for FIP?
Biopsy with immunohistochemistry (pyogranulomatous inflammation w/ vasculitis, virus particles in macrophages)
Name 4 husbandry and hygienic measures that a shelter can take to prevent/control FIP
1) Separate sero(-) from sero(+)
2) Breed only sero(-) cats
3) Remove kittens from queens at 5-6wks
4) Add only sero(-) cats to population
What is the Rivalta screening test for? What are positive results?
FIP; Positive = drop of effusion maintains shape and sinks slowly
What is the pathophysiologic mechanism by which FIP is thought to develop in cats?
FIP virus replicates w/in macrophages and regional LN; virus travels systemically w/in macrophages
What is the most common cause of feline lower urinary tract disease?
Cystitis followed by urolithiasis
List 5 clinical signs of FLUTD
1) Strain often +/- vocalization
2) Small amounts of urine
3) Drops of bloody urine
4) In/out of urine pan
What are 4 management recommendations for an indoor cat with obstructed FLUTD?
1) Environmental enrichment
2) Feeding--inc. H2O content
3) Litter--1 box per cat, clean daily
4) Encourage water drinking (multiple bowls, fresh water)
What key message should be communicated to the owner of a cat with FLUTD?
Recurrence is common, risk of obstruction increases with multiple episodes
What is the test of choice to confirm a preemptive diagnosis of feline hyperthyroidism?
Serum total thyroxine (TT4)--95% cats is diagnostic; if normal but CS are present, run Free T4 via equilibrium dialysis
What are the treatment options for feline hyperthyroidism?
1) Radioactive iodine--tx of choice, pot. curative
2) Methimazole (Tapazole)
3) Thyroidectomy--risk of hypoparathyroidism
4) Hills y/d diet (controversial)
What are 4 common concurrent problems with feline hyperthyroidism?
1) Cardiac--HCM, CHF, systolic murmur, arrhythmias
2) Systemic hypertension--systolic BP > 180
3) Renal failure--often masked by hyperthyroidism
4) Hypokalemia--neck ventroflexion, weakness
What might be seen on an abdominal ultrasound in a cat with pancreatitis?
Enlarged, hypoechoic pancreas and prominent bile duct
What is the typical presentation of a cat with pancreatitis?
>50% show lethargy, anorexia, dehydration; 25-50% show wt. loss, hypothermia, vomiting, icterus; <25% show fever, abdominal pain, dyspnea
What is triaditis?
Pancreatitis + inflammatory bowel disease + cholangitis
What test should be performed in addition to abdominal ultrasound for suspected feline pancreatitis?
Serum feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (Spec fPL); test of choice--high sensitivity and specificity
What is the treatment of choice for acute feline pancreatitis?
IV fluids and supportive care (analgesia, anti-emetics, good nutrition)
What is the treatment of choice for chronic feline pancreatitis?
Glucocorticoid trial Rx, empirically treat with praziquantel (poss. liver flukes)
Which medication is contraindicated in the treatment of feline pancreatitis? Why?
Metoclopramide--decreases pancreatic perfusion
A cat with suspected pancreatitis has a normal result on its fTLI test. What is your interpretation?
Normal results do not rule out pancreatitis--accurate if HIGH value
What is the most appropriate test to perform for a presumed diagnosis of injection site sarcoma?