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Flashcards in Exam 5 Deck (132)
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1

environmental information is registered, large capacity for information, duration: 1/4 second-3 seconds

sensory memory

2

new information is transferred from sensory memory, old information is retrieved from long-term memory, limited capacity for information, duration: approximately 20-30 seconds

short-term (working) memory

3

information that was been encoded in short term memory is stored, unlimited capacity for information, duration: potentially permanent

long term memory

4

The process of transforming information into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory system

encoding

5

The process of retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time

storage

6

the process of recovering information stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it

retrieval

7

The mental or verbal repetition of information in order to maintain it beyond the usual 20-second duration of short-term memory

maintenance rehearsal

8

Rehearsal that involves focusing on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to long-term memory

elaborative rehearsal

9

_____-____ memory is more likely to be used when the focus is on simpler memory processes, such as rehearsing lists of syllables, words, or numbers

working term

10

tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle

The Serial Position Effect

11

Increasing the amount of information that can be held in short-term memory by grouping related items together into a single unit,

chunking

12

The temporary storage and active, conscious manipulation of information needed for complex cognitive tasks, such as reasoning, learning, and problem solving.

working memory

13

the __________ _____, is specialized for verbal material, such as lists of numbers or words

phonological loop

14

the ___________ ___________, is specialized for spatial or visual material

visuospatial sketchpad

15

the ________ ________ controls attention, integrates information, and manages activities of phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad

Central executive

16

Category of long-term memory that includes memories of particular/specific events

episodic memory

17

Category of long-term memory that includes memories of general knowledge, concepts, facts, and names; general knowledge

semantic memory

18

Category of long-term memory that includes memories of different skills, operations, and actions; muscle memory

procedural memory

19

tendency to recover information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting as the original learning of the information

context effect

20

Organizing items into related groups during recall from long-term memory

clustering

21

An encoding specificity phenomenon in which a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood

mood congruence

22

When you are in a good mood, you remember good memories

example of mood congurence

23

A memory phenomenon that involves the sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in long-term memory, but being temporarily unable to retrieve it

tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experience

24

The recall of very specific images or details surrounding a vivid, rare, or significant personal event; details may or may not be accurate

flashbulb memory

25

_________ ________ are emotionally charged, but they are not necessarily more accurate than memories of more common events

flashbulb memories

26

Can't retrieve the partial responses that you absolutely know are stored in your LTM, People have one experience per week, 50% of the time people can name the first letter of the word or amount of syllables , 90% of experiences are resolved

tip of the tongue facts

27

phenomenon through which memory retrieval is most efficient when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as they were when the memory was formed

state dependent memory

28

memory retrieval while in consciousness produced by psychoactive drugs – most commonly, alcohol

state dependent memory

29

Information or knowledge that can be consciously recollected; also called declarative memory.

explicit memory

30

Information or knowledge that affects behavior or task performance but cannot be consciously recollected; also called non-declarative memory

implicit memory