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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (85)
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A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience



The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses



_____ ______ was looking at salivation in dogs in response to being fed, when he noticed that his dogs would begin to salivate whenever he entered the room, even when he was not bringing them food.

Ivan Pavlov


The unlearned, reflexive response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus

unconditioned response


The natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning

unconditioned (unlearned/natural) stimulus


A formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response

conditioned stimulus


The learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus

conditioned (learned) response


The occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus but to other, similar stimuli as well

stimulus generalization


The occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, similar stimuli

stimulus discrimination


Behaviorism is the view that psychology:

Should be an objective science
Studies behaviors without taking mental processes into account


A procedure in which a conditioned stimulus from one learning trial functions as the unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial; the second conditioned stimulus comes to elicit the conditioned response, even though it has never been directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus

higher order conditioning also called second-order conditioning


In learning theory, the idea that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses

biological preparedness


But many people develop _______ without having experienced a traumatic event in association with the object of their fear, this is caused by __________ learning

phobias; observational


The gradual weakening and disappearance of conditioned behavior- In operant conditioning, _______ occurs when an emitted behavior is no longer followed by a reinforcer

extinction (in operant conditioning)


The reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus.

spontaneous recovery


A classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when an organism becomes ill after eating the food

taste aversion


a classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when an organism becomes ill after eating the food - this shows survival value

John Garcia's research


both the physical characteristics and the natural behavior patterns of any species have been shaped by evolution to maximize adaptation to the environment.

evolutionary view of classical conditioning


Seligman proposed that humans are _________ _________ to develop fears of objects or situations—such as snakes, spiders, and heights—that may once have posed a threat to humans’ evolutionary ancestors.

biologically prepared


If you’re feeling more awake before blood levels of caffeine rise, it’s probably because you’ve developed a _________ __________ __________ to the sight, smell, and taste of coffee

classically conditioned response


If the animal was allowed a period of rest after the response was extinguished, the __________ __________ would reappear when the conditioned stimulus was again presented.

conditioned response


______ __ ________ believed that virtually all human behavior is a result of conditioning and learning—that is, due to past experience and environmental influences.

John B. Watson


I should like to go one step further now and say, “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years.

John B Watson


John Watson placed a rat on the table in front of ______ ______, who did not react. He then began making a loud noise on several separate occasions while showing ______ _______ the rat. He cried in reaction to the noise and, after a period of conditioning, cried in response to the rat even without the loud noise.

Little Albert


The Little Albert experiment is an example of:

classical conditioning


“To make your consumer react tell him something that will tie him up with fear, something that will stir up a mild rage, that will call out an affectionate or love response, or strike at a deep psychological or habit need”

John B Watson on advertising and classical conditioning


If _________ __________ occurs, the product will also elicit a warm, emotional response without the ad

classical conditioning


An individual’s psychological and physiological response to what is actually a fake treatment or drug

placebo response


A classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when an organism becomes ill after eating the food

taste aversion


classically conditioned dislike/avoidance of a particular food that develops when an organism becomes ill after eating a food

John Garcia's theory on taste aversion