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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (43)
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1

Three systems of stratification

Slavery
Caste
Social Classes

2

Slavery

Most extreme form: individuals are owned by other people and are treated as properly

3

Caste

Systems of stratification are hereditary systems of rank, usually religiously dictated that tend to be fixed and immobile

4

Social classes

Social ranking based primarily on economic position

5

Marx's Concept of Social Theory
(2 Classes)

Focus on conflict among social classes
Historically bases concept
differences between classes are based on economics and property

6

2 Class Society

Bourgeoisie: own the means of production
Proletariat: workers, labor, who don't own property

7

NO middle class

Marx said they are nothing more than "better paid slaves"

8

Class Consciousness:

lower class will not unite to resist those in power until they become aware of:
Their common interest"we are all in this together
Their common enemy
-Bourgeoisie

9

Five Class model

Upper Class: 1-2% US wealthiest
Upper-middle: 10-15% "wealthy professionals"
Lower middle: 30-35% less affluent professionals
Working Class: 40-45% Manual labor
Lower Class: 20-25% minority ethnic groups

10

Webers view

no single statistic describes ones position
3 components: Property, Prestige, Power

11

Status Inconsistency

Predicts that people whose status is inconsistent will be more frustrated and dissatisfied

12

Is inequality inevitable?

Mosca: Yes due to need for structure, political structure requires inequality of power
Davis and Moore: Yes(functionalist theory) society must give reward to most important positions
Marx: No(workers revolt and over throw owner)

13

Social Mobility

upward and downward movement within stratification classes

14

Social mobility rules

Rules governing how we keep our position
Achieved status rules= based on merit
Ascribed status rules= based on who you are

15

Structural mobility

movement between classes due to changes in the number of upper and lower class positions

16

Exchange Mobility

Movement between classes due to positions opening at the top from downward mobility

17

Racial

A group set a part from others because of obvious physical differences
Physical racial distinctions only become important when people attach cultural meanings to them

18

Ethnic Group

A group set apart from others primarily because of its national origin(geographic) or distinctive cultural patterns

19

Social construction of race

Process by which people come to define a group as a race based in part on physical characteristics but also on historical, cultural, and economic factors

20

Hypodescent

Children whose parents are from different groups are automatically put into the minority group

21

Minority Group

A subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than members of a dominant group

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5 Properties of minority group

Experience unequal treatment
Distinguishing Characteristics
Involuntary Membership
Strong sense of group solidarity
In group marriage

23

Racism

Believing that one race is supreme and others are inferior

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Ethnocentrism

assume our culture and way of life represents the norm and is superior to others

25

Stereotypes

Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group

26

Self-fulfilling prophecy

describes a person/group as having particular characteristics and then they begin to display those very traits

27

Prejudice

Attitude that pre-judges a person based on real or imagined characteristics of a group of which that person is a member

28

Discrimination

The process of denying opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of arbitrary reasons

29

Glass Ceiling

Invisible barrier blocking the promotion of qualified individual due to gender, race and ethnicity

30

Gordon Allport Theory

Studied men on a ship
racism did not decrease if all officers are white and all chefs are black
Group status influences prejudice