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Flashcards in Exam 2: The First Two Years Deck (89)
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1

What is the typical growth of an infant in the first two years?

Birthweight doubles, triples and quadruples by 4 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo.

Height increases by a foot; half adult height at 24 mo

Brain at birth 25% of human size; 75% by 24 mo

2

Frontal Cortex

Front Part of Cortex

Planning, Self-Control and Self-Regulation

3

Cortex

Crinkled outer part of Brain

Most thinking, feeling and sensing involve the cortex

Composed of 6 tissue layers in infants

Contains about 70% of the brain's neurons

4

Auditory Cortex

Central Part of Brain; Auditory

5

Visual Cortex

Rear Part of Brain; Visual

6

Axon

A fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of another

Only one per neuron

7

Dendrite

A fiber that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses Transmitted from other neurons via axons

8

Neuron

A nerve cell in the central nervous system, especially the brain

9

Synapse

The intersection (gap) between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another

10

Transient Exuberance

The great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that occurs in an infant's brain during the first 24 months of life

11

Experience-Expectant Brain Function

Brain functions that require certain basic common experiences, which an infant can be expected to have, in order to develop normally

12

Experience-Dependent Brain Function

Brain functions that depend on particular, variable experiences, and therefore may or may not develop in a particular infant

13

When do infants need to hear language in order to develop normal speech?

Language areas of the brain develop most quickly between 6-24 mo

Speech heard between 6-12 mo helps infants recognize the charactersitics of their native language long before they begin to form words (Saffron et al 2006)

14

Self-Righting

The inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit

People of all ages have self-righting impulses, for emotional as well as physical imbalances

15

Can early deprivation be overcome?

Head-sparing, plasticity, self-righting, catch-up growth and experience-expectant growth can compensate for many imperfections and lapses of human parenting, but they cannot overcome extreme early deprivation.

16

Sensation

the response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus

sensation precedes perception

17

Perception

The mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation

Occurs in the cortex

Requires experience or messages from other people to place a meaning to the sensation

18

Good to Know

Infant brains are especially attuned to their own repeated social experiences and have an inborn preference for repeated patterns

All healthy infants develop skills in the same sequence, but there is great variability in age of acquisition

Cultural patterns of child rearing affect sensation, perception and motor skills

19

Cognition

Thinking about what is known; understanding of concepts

Follows perception in young infants and children, until the brain has developed the ability to imagine

20

Hearing

Develops during the last trimester; well-developed at birth

Sounds can trigger reflexes; startling or soothing

21

Seeing

Vision least mature sense at birth; newborns legally blind; can only see 4-30 inches away

By 3 months, look closely at mouths and eyes; prefer photos with faces; pay attention to colors, patterns and motion

22

Binocular Vision

The ability to coordinate the two eyes to see one image; ability absent at birth

Appears suddenly around 14 weeks

23

The goals of the Senses for the Infant

Social Interaction

Comfort

24

Motor Skills

Emerge directly from reflexes

The learned abilities to move and control the parts of the body, in actions ranging from a large leap to the flicker of an eyelid

Gross Motor Skills: Physical abilities involving large body movements

25

Gross Motor Skill Age Norms

Sit w/ Head Steady - 3-4 mo
Sit Unsupported - 6-7 mo
Pull to Stand - 9-10 mo
Stand Alone - 12-14 mo
Walk Well - 13-15 mo
Walk Backward - 15-17 mo
Run - 18-20 mo
Jump - 26-29 mo

26

Walking

Three factors combine to allow a toddler to walk

- Muscle Strength
- Brain maturation in motor cortex
- Practice

27

Fine Motor Skills

Physical Abilities involving small body movements, esp of the hands, fingers and toes, and of the tongue, jaw, and lips

28

Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

A condition in which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind

Can result in severe illnesses, severe weight loss and death

29

Stunting

The failure of children to grow to a normal height for their age due to severe and chronic malnutrition

Most common in poor nations

30

Wasting

Severely underweight for age; 2 or more standard deviations under average

About 25% of children in the world are wasted; Africa has largest proportion

Almost all stunted children are wasted; but it is possible to be one w/o the other