exam 2 ( Respiratory and lymphatic) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in exam 2 ( Respiratory and lymphatic) Deck (50)
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1

Which cytokine is responsible for activating T- cells, increases secretion of cytokines and leads to fever?

A. Colony stimulating factors (CSTs)
B. Interferons
C. Interleukin -1
D. Interleukin - 2

C. Interleukin -1

2

Which of the following does not describe inspiration?
A. Atmospheric pressure is lower than thoracic cavity (lung) pressure
B. The diaphragm contracts increasing the size of the thoracic cavity
C. Recoil of the membranes of their original position
D. Contraction of the external intercostals muscles
E. More than one above

E. More than one above

3

____________ represent the site of gas exchange, while ____________ are responsible for the production of surfactant.
A. Type II Alveolar cells ; Type I Alveolar cells
B. Type I Alveolar cells ; Type I Alveolar cells
C. Type I Alveolar cells ; Type II Alveolar cells
D. None of the above are correct

C. Type I Alveolar cells ; Type II Alveolar cells

4

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) is defined as:

A. maximum amount of air that can be moved into the lungs
B. maximum amount of air that can be moved into and out of the lungs after tidal volume
C. volume moved in or out of lungs during a normal respiratory cycle
D. maximum amount of air that can be moved out of the lungs
E. none of the above

D. maximum amount of air that can be moved out of the lungs

5

Which of the following does not describes a lymph node?

A. Contain B and T- lymphocytes
B. Filtering of lymph to remove foreign debris
C. composed of red and white pulp
D. considered a primary organ
E. more than one above

E. more than one above

6

Which of the following is not a suggested cause of autoimmune disorders?

A. Faulty T- cell development
B. Reaction to a non-self antigen that is similar in structure to a self- antigen
C. Previous viral infection
D. All of the above are causes

D. All of the above are causes

7

Which of the following best describes the pathway that air travels through the upper respiratory system?

A. Nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx, trachea, primary bronchi
B. Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary bronchi
C. Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, primary bronchi
D. Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, secondary bronchi

B. Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary bronchi

8

Which of the following types of T- cells assists in activating other T- cells and B- cells?

A. Helper T- cells
B. Cytotoxic T- cells
C. Natural Killer cells
D. All of the above

A. Helper T- cells

9

Which of the following best describes the antibody IgM?

A. Promotes an allergic reaction via the release of histamine
B. Involved with incompatible blood transfusions
C. Found on the surface of most B- lymphocytes and acts in B- cell activating
D. Crosses the placental membrane
E. None of the above

B. Involved with incompatible blood transfusions

*"mmmm you fucked up.."

10

The spleen is composed of _______ which contain many sinuses and ________ which contains lymphocytes around a blood vessel

A. white pulp; red pulp
B. red pulp; white pulp
C. cortex; medulla
D. medulla; cortex

B. red pulp; white pulp

11

The movement of oxygen from the capillary into the cells of the body is seen during:

A. external respiration
B. internal respiration
C. cellular respiration
D. pulmonary ventilation

B. internal respiration

12

Which of the following best describes external respiration?

A. Partial pressure of oxygen is higher in the capillaries than the tissue
B. Partial pressure of carbon is higher in the capillaries than the tissue
C. Partial pressure of oxygen is lower in the tissue than the capillaries
D. Both A and C
E. All of the above describe external respiration

B. Partial pressure of carbon is higher in the capillaries than the tissue

13

Which of the following is not true of the lymphatic system?

A. Is a closed system
B. Use valves to ensure flow in one direction
C. Carry fluid under low pressure
D. All of the above are true of the lymphatic system

A. Is a closed system

14

Which of the following is commonly known as the body’s “ first line of defense?”

A. Mechanical barriers
B. Fever
C.T and B lymphocytes
D. Chemical barriers

A. Mechanical barriers

15

Carbon dioxide is predominantly transported in which form?

A. Bicarbonate ions
B. Carbaminohemoglobin
C. Dissolved carbon dioxide
D. None of the above

A. Bicarbonate ions

16

Which of the following antibodies is secreted from exocrine glands, such as the mammary glands?

A. IgE
B. IgA
C. IgG
D. IgM

B. IgA

17

Boyle’s law states:

A. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if no other gases were presents
B. the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure
C. the volume of a gas exchange is proportional to its pressure
D. None of the above

C. the volume of a gas exchange is proportional to its pressure

18

The accumulation of excess fluid leading to swelling in known as:

A. lymph
B. edema
C. osmotic pressure
D. GALT

B. edema

19

Which of the following groups is associated with forceful respiration activity?

A. Pontine respiratory group
B. Dorsal respiratory group
C. Ventral respiratory group
D. All of the above

B. Dorsal respiratory group

20

Which of the following is a paired cartilage found at the larynx?

A. Thyroid cartilage
B. Cricoid cartilage
C. Epiglottis cartilage
D. All of the above
E. none of the above

E. none of the above

21

Which of the following terms represents a disease state characterized by pulmonary edema?

A. Pleurisy
B. Apnea
C. Pneumonia
D. Dyspnea

C. Pneumonia

22

Which of the following terms describes how easily lung tissue stretches during pulmonary ventilation?

A. Compliance
B. Surfactant
C. Surface tension
D. None of the above

A. Compliance

23

Which of the following decreases the rate of diffusion during gas exchange?

A. Steep partial pressure gradient
B. Increased surface area
C. Longer distance to travel
D. None of the above

C. Longer distance to travel

24

The production of carbon dioxide from carbonic acid occurs during which of the following?

A. Internal respiration
B. External respiration
C. Cellular respiration
D. Pulmonary ventilation

B. External respiration

25

The __________ prevents food/ liquid from entering the larynx while the ________ is a small opening which allows for movement of air through the larynx. A. epiglottis; pharynx B. glottis; epiglottis C. epiglottis; glottis D. epiglottis; true vocal cords


B. glottis; epiglottis


26

The chloride ion shift occurs to maintain ionic balance due to the movement of which other ion?

A. Calcium
B. Sodium
C. Potassium
D. Bicarbonate

D. Bicarbonate

27

During expiration:

A. atmospheric pressure is less than the pressure inside the thoracic cavity (alveoli)
B. the diaphragm relaxes
C. external intercostal muscles relax, decreasing the volume
D. Both A and B
E. All of the above

E. All of the above

28

The production of B- lymphocytes occur at the _______ while the production of T- lymphocytes occur at the _______.

A. thymus gland; lymph node
B. thymus gland; bone marrow
C. bone marrow; lymph node
D. bone marrow; thymus gland

D. bone marrow; thymus gland

29

A compound composed of lipids that decreases surface tension and prevents alveolar collapse is:

A. pressure
B. surface tension
C. surfactant
D. carbonic anhydrase

C. surfactant

30

. Which of the following describes internal respiration?

A. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide is high in the capillary
B. Partial pressure of oxygen is high in the capillary
C. Partial pressure of oxygen is low in the tissue
D. both B and C
E. All of the above

D. both B and C