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Flashcards in Exam #2 Deck (113)
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1

What is classical conditioning?

When a neutral produces a response paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response

2

unconditioned stimulus

something that reliably produces a naturally occuring reaction in an organism

3

unconditioned response

a reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus

4

Conditioned stimulus

a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism

5

conditioned response

a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus

6

Second order conditioning

conditioning where the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a CS

7

Extinction

the gradual elimination of a learned response that occours when the US is no longer present

8

Spontaneous recovery

tendency of learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period

9

Generalization

a process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition

10

Discrimination

the capacity to distinguish between similar but not distinct stimuli

11

biological preparedness

a propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others

12

the cerebellum is involved in ___conditioning

delay

13

the hippocampus is involved in ___ conditioning

trace

14

the amygdala is involved in ___ conditioning

fear

15

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which the consequence of an organisms behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future

16

law of effect

positive reinforcement reinforces positive habits
negative reinforces negative

17

operant behavior

behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the environment

18

Reinforcer

positive or negatiwe

19

punisher

disencourages certain behavior

20

What is the overjustification effect?

when external rewards undermine intrinsic satisfaction

21

fixed interval schedule (FI)

rewards are presented at fixed intervals

22

variable interval schedule (VI)

variable rewards

23

fixed ratio schedule (FR)

reinforcement is followed after certain amount of tasks completed

24

variable ratio schedule (VR)

reinforcement is based on average amount of tasks completed

25

intermittent reinforcement

more random reinforcement

26

shaping

learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps

27

latent learning

When something is learned but is not manifested in behavior until later

28

What are the pleasure centers of the brain?

nucleus accumbens, medial forebrain bundle, and hypothalamus

29

Diffusion chain

learning from other's doing

30

What regions are responsible for mirror neurons

the frontal and parietal lobe