Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (59)
What are the four essential steps of effective public relations?
Research, planning, communication, measurement; R.O.P.E-- research, objectives, programming, evaluation
What is research?
Organized, systematic listening; essential to any PR activity or campaign
Is it cheaper to do research internally or externally?
What are some ways research is used?
To achieve credibility with management (internally-- make case for why you need more money; externally-- establish expertise), to define/segment publics (each public will have different communication), to formulate strategy, to test messages, to prevent crises, to monitor competition, to generate publicity ("One in ten doctors reccomend..."), to measure success
What is the value of research?
Provides discussion and debate of relevant topics within the academy; communication research helps practitioners save time, resources, and money
What is secondary research?
Any research that exists previously; existing information
What is primary research?
New original research
What is qualitative research?
Cannot be counted; exploratory, rich data, often not generalizable; soft data; open ended and unstructured questions, ex. focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation
What is quantitative research?
Can be counted; descriptive/explanatory, often generalizable; hard data; closed ended questions that requires focused choices; ex. mail surveys, phone calls
What are some techniques used when conducting research?
Organizational materials (previous reports), library and online databases, internet, content analysis (look at how media portrays organization, good/bad, who said what), interviews, focus groups (invite sample group to meet to talk, problem is that sample group can misrepresent the general public, 6-12 people + moderator), copy testing, scientific sampling methods
What is a population?
The widest possible parameters of people whose opinions you wish to study
What is a sample size?
A group that represents the population; usually a sample size of 250 to 500 people will provide data with a 5 to 6 % margin of error while a sample of 100 people will provide about a 10 % margin; the larger the sample size the smaller the margin of error
What is a non-probability sample?
Not everyone has an equal chance to be in the sample; ex. intercept (clipboard in the mall survey, not systematic), convenience (survey your class), purposive (interview with specific people)
What is a probability/random sample?
Everyone has an equal chance to be in the sample; ex. systematic, quota, proportional; most precise random sample is selected from list naming everyone in the target audience
What questions are asked prior to scientific research?
Who is the population?
How large is the sample?
Which sampling method will be used?
How will we contact the sample?
What will we ask and how will we ask it?
How will we analyze the information?
What are some examples of researching respondents?
Mail questionnaires (1 % return), telephone surveys, personal interviews (door to door), piggyback surveys (pay survey organizations for 1 or 2 questions, cheap but provides limited responses), web and email surveys
How do you increase the response rate?
LOWEST TO HIGHEST RATE OF RETURN:
-Mailed by a commercial firm to the general public
-Survey includes issues that the public think are relevant
-Mailed by an organization to its members
What is planning?
Must be strategic and systematic; involves the coordination of multiple methods; asks the question "Where do you want to take the organization?"; looks at a variety of different directions
What is MBO?
Management by objectives-- employees and management come to an agreement on how something will be judged, based of final outcome on objectives, ex. number of people that come to an event
What is Ketchum's Strategic Planning Model?
Facts, goals, audience, key message
What are the eight elements of program planning?
Situation, objectives (desired outcome), audience (research? demographics? who and why you're targeting), strategy (why campaign will achieve objectives, why _____ will work), tactics (specific activities), calendar/timetable (specific), budget (costs, employee time + out of pocket), measurement (evaluation)
What is a goal?
General, mission-orientated, not measurable, big picture, general statement of a direction we want to go
What is an objective?
Grows from goals, clear, measurable, addresses awareness, understanding, or behavior change
What do objectives do?
Help communicate and coordinate, serve as decision points, provide evaluative benchmark, CLEAR
What are output objectives?
What do we do
What are impact objectives?
How did the target audience change, impact on audience
Objectives should be.....
Clear and narrowly defined, linked to goals, linked to a specific public, linked to a specific outcome, linked to research (should come from somewhere, not made up), written explicitly and clearly, measurable, time defined, designed for a single public and a single response, not unrealistic
What is an awareness objective?
Lowest level of objective; attention, comprehension, retention
What is an acceptance objective?