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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (59)
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1

What are the four essential steps of effective public relations?

Research, planning, communication, measurement; R.O.P.E-- research, objectives, programming, evaluation

2

What is research?

Organized, systematic listening; essential to any PR activity or campaign

3

Is it cheaper to do research internally or externally?

Internally

4

What are some ways research is used?

To achieve credibility with management (internally-- make case for why you need more money; externally-- establish expertise), to define/segment publics (each public will have different communication), to formulate strategy, to test messages, to prevent crises, to monitor competition, to generate publicity ("One in ten doctors reccomend..."), to measure success

5

What is the value of research?

Provides discussion and debate of relevant topics within the academy; communication research helps practitioners save time, resources, and money

6

What is secondary research?

Any research that exists previously; existing information

7

What is primary research?

New original research

8

What is qualitative research?

Cannot be counted; exploratory, rich data, often not generalizable; soft data; open ended and unstructured questions, ex. focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation

9

What is quantitative research?

Can be counted; descriptive/explanatory, often generalizable; hard data; closed ended questions that requires focused choices; ex. mail surveys, phone calls

10

What are some techniques used when conducting research?

Organizational materials (previous reports), library and online databases, internet, content analysis (look at how media portrays organization, good/bad, who said what), interviews, focus groups (invite sample group to meet to talk, problem is that sample group can misrepresent the general public, 6-12 people + moderator), copy testing, scientific sampling methods

11

What is a population?

The widest possible parameters of people whose opinions you wish to study

12

What is a sample size?

A group that represents the population; usually a sample size of 250 to 500 people will provide data with a 5 to 6 % margin of error while a sample of 100 people will provide about a 10 % margin; the larger the sample size the smaller the margin of error

13

What is a non-probability sample?

Not everyone has an equal chance to be in the sample; ex. intercept (clipboard in the mall survey, not systematic), convenience (survey your class), purposive (interview with specific people)

14

What is a probability/random sample?

Everyone has an equal chance to be in the sample; ex. systematic, quota, proportional; most precise random sample is selected from list naming everyone in the target audience

15

What questions are asked prior to scientific research?

Who is the population?
How large is the sample?
Which sampling method will be used?
How will we contact the sample?
What will we ask and how will we ask it?
How will we analyze the information?

16

What are some examples of researching respondents?

Mail questionnaires (1 % return), telephone surveys, personal interviews (door to door), piggyback surveys (pay survey organizations for 1 or 2 questions, cheap but provides limited responses), web and email surveys

17

How do you increase the response rate?

LOWEST TO HIGHEST RATE OF RETURN:
-Mailed by a commercial firm to the general public
-Survey includes issues that the public think are relevant
-Mailed by an organization to its members

18

What is planning?

Must be strategic and systematic; involves the coordination of multiple methods; asks the question "Where do you want to take the organization?"; looks at a variety of different directions

19

What is MBO?

Management by objectives-- employees and management come to an agreement on how something will be judged, based of final outcome on objectives, ex. number of people that come to an event

20

What is Ketchum's Strategic Planning Model?

Facts, goals, audience, key message

21

What are the eight elements of program planning?

Situation, objectives (desired outcome), audience (research? demographics? who and why you're targeting), strategy (why campaign will achieve objectives, why _____ will work), tactics (specific activities), calendar/timetable (specific), budget (costs, employee time + out of pocket), measurement (evaluation)

22

What is a goal?

General, mission-orientated, not measurable, big picture, general statement of a direction we want to go

23

What is an objective?

Grows from goals, clear, measurable, addresses awareness, understanding, or behavior change

24

What do objectives do?

Help communicate and coordinate, serve as decision points, provide evaluative benchmark, CLEAR

25

What are output objectives?

What do we do

26

What are impact objectives?

How did the target audience change, impact on audience

27

Objectives should be.....

Clear and narrowly defined, linked to goals, linked to a specific public, linked to a specific outcome, linked to research (should come from somewhere, not made up), written explicitly and clearly, measurable, time defined, designed for a single public and a single response, not unrealistic

28

What is an awareness objective?

Lowest level of objective; attention, comprehension, retention

29

What is an acceptance objective?

Interest, attitude

30

What is an action objective?

Opinion, behavior