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1

What is anatomy

the study of the structure and relationship between body parts.

2

Physiology

is the study of the function of body parts and the body as a whole.

3

Homeostasis

The maintenance of stable, internal conditions. Often maintained by negative feedback. A characteristic of all living systems.

4

Positive Feedback:

the effector increases the stimulus which causes more of the effector to be produced

5

Negative Feedback:

the effector decreases the stimulus and causes production of the product to be stopped.

6

Metabolism

The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. Metabolism consists of anabolism (the buildup of substances) and catabolism (the breakdown of substances).

7

Signs

Any objective evidence of disease. For example, gross blood in the stool is a sign of disease; it is evidence that can be recognized by the patient, physician, nurse, or someone else.

8

Symptoms

Symptom is subjective and apparent only to the patient (for example back pain or fatigue).

9

Name the sub-disciplines of anatomy and physiology. What does each cover?

-Gross Anatomy: the study of body parts visible to the naked eye, such as the heart or bones.

-Histology: the study of tissues at the microscopic level.

-Cytology: the study of cells at the microscopic level.

-Neurophysiology: the study of how the nervous system functions.

10

These are the 4 basic tissue types. What do they do, and give a high-level description of what they look like.

1) Muscle
2) Epithelial
3) Connective
4) Nervous

* Muscle - Cells are long and fibrous. They can contract to move. In parallel lines and are bundled, making muscle tissue very strong.

* Epithelial - outer layer of skin. Flat, cuboidal, or columnar. Joined tightly, making a continuous sheet. Like a quilt that is tightly stitched, epithelium protects the body in the form as skin.

* Connective - A web that holds our body parts together.

* Nervous - Nervous tissue is composed of neurons, also called nerve cells, and neuroglial cells.

11

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Integumentary

* skin, hair, subcutaneous fat and nails.

* Protection from the environment. Aids in temperature regulation

12

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Muscular

* Muscles, skeletal muscles

* Provides movement and support

13

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Skeletal

bones, joints, cartilage, ligaments and tendons.

provides structural support and protection for your internal organs.

14

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Nervous

brain, spinal cord, autonomic and somatic nerves (i.e., involuntary and voluntary nerves) and all sensory organs, including those that serve vision, smell, sensation, balance, hearing and taste.

Coordinates movements. Controls responses to stimuli. Processes memories.

15

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Circulatory

heart, blood vessels and blood.

Delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell, tissue and organ in your body.

16

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Lymphatic

* lymphatic vessels, which travel with your blood vessels, and the lymph nodes, where immune cells are produced.

* Transports fats absorbed from your intestine and carries immune cells from one place to another in your body.

17

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Respiratory

* nose, pharynx (mouth), larynx (throat), trachea (windpipe), bronchi and bronchioles (airways), lungs, diaphragm, and sinuses

* Site of gas exchange in your body. Oxygen is absorbed into to your bloodstream and carbon dioxide is removed.

18

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Endocrine

* collection of glands, including the pituitary and thyroid glands, as well as the ovaries and testes.

* It regulates, coordinates, and controls a number of body functions by secreting chemicals into the bloodstream. These secretions help control moods, growth and development, and metabolism.

19

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Urinary

* kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

* filter out excess fluid and other substances from your bloodstream

20

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Reproductive

* uterus, penis, ovaries, and testes

* allows humans to reproduce

21

Organ System: name a few organs, and it's general function.

Digestive

* mouth, stomach, and intestines

* Digests food so cells can use it to make energy

22

Put in order (largest to smallest), and define:

Ecosystem
Molecule
Population
Organism
Biosphere
Organ
Tissue
Community
Cell
Organ System

1) Biosphere: all of the ecosystems on Earth. Every animal, plant, bacteria, rock, and molecule is a part of the Earth's biosphere.

2) Ecosystem: All living and non-living communities in a certain area.

3) Community: All living species in a certain area

4) Population: Group of the same species within a specific area. Ex: a pride of lions in Kenya

5) Organism: self-contained individual. Can be unicellular like bacteria, or multi-cellular like humans.

6) Organ System: Organs work together to perform specific bodily functions. Ex: respiratory system uses lungs, airways and muscles

7) Organ: tissues that work together. Ex: brain, liver

8) Tissue: cells work together. Ex: Muscle tissue

9) Cell: basic unit of life. There are plant cells and animal cells.

10) Molecule: made of atoms, smallest unit of chemical elements.

23

Most organs in the ventral body are covered with this clear, watery fluid:

serous membranes

24

serous membranes are composed of 2 layers. What are they called, and what are they?

1) visceral layer (viscera = internal organs) covers the organ

2) parietal layer (paries = wall) attaches to and covers the ventral body wall

25

Between the 2 serous membrane layers (visceral and parietal) there is a (potential) cavity that contains clear, watery fluid called

serous fluid

26

What does serous fluid do?

prevents friction as organs move

27

what is the Pluera membrane?

Thoracic serous membrane that covers the lungs

28

what is the Pericardium membrane?

Thoracic serous membrane that covers the heart

29

What is the Peritoneum?

The serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs in the peritoneal cavity. (peri = around; teinein = to stretch)

30

body is erect (vertical); facing forward; arms straight at side of body; palms facing forward; legs straight; feet facing forward and flat

anatomical position