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Two main types of Developmental Theories

Grand Theories: psychoanalytic, behaviorism (learning theory), & cognitive theory

New Theories: multicultural & multidisciplinary; sociocultural & universal theories

1

How do theories contribute to understanding development?

Cognitive- how thinking affects actions

Behaviorism- how the immediate environment affects actions

Psychoanalytic- awareness of early childhood social and emotional experiences

2

Other factors in determining sex?

Rarely sperm may have only an X or a Y

Uterus may be inhospitable to one sex chromosome

Stressful pregnancies abort makes more often

3

Describe differentiation

At 8 cell stage, differentiation occurs

Cells specialize

Begin growing & developing at different rates according to what body structures they will become.

4

Period of the Embryo

W3-W8

Fastest period of growth

Many critical development stages; teratogens may do most harm in this period

At end of period, all organs present and functioning, with the exception of sex organs

5

Teratogen Risk

Timing of exposure

Dosage/Frequency in relation to threshold

Exposure to more than one teratogen may produce effects not seen in each teratogen alone