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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (43)
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1

demagogue

a speaker who manipulates an audience & distorts evidence

2

rhetoric

"art of persuasion;" excludes force; grounded in choice; considers ethics; dynamic & developing

3

common elements of rhetoric

speaker, message, audience

4

classical era

5th century BCE - 4th century AD; Greece & Rome; grammatical approach (form and patterns); focus on speaker

5

18th century

England & Scotland; psychological approach (audience's perception & interpretation); focus on audience

6

contemporary era

1920s - present; U.S., moved to Europe & China; sociological approach (inherent human ability to manipulate & understand symbols); focus on message

7

polis

Greek city-state; shares language & identity

8

metic

a respected outsider in a polis; i.e. Aristotle in Athens

9

geography of Greece

temperate climate; navigation allowed for information sharing & shared understanding

10

Greek cultural assumptions

belief in reason; responsibility to participate in government (free men); sensitivity to form & pattern; respect for human dignity & freedom

11

arete

excellence; started as military, grew to include people, possessions, city-states, etc.

12

dike

justice

13

kakos

harm, injury

14

delios

cowardice

15

agora

marketplace

16

Greek identity

things as organic wholes; excess leads to chaos

17

epideictic

ceremonial speech; i.e. funeral oration

18

deliberative

governmental, legislative speech

19

forensic/judicial

legal speech

20

pre-Socratics

intellectuals before Socrates; only fragments of their writings exist; tried to explain origin of universe, what constitutes logic & truth

21

epistemological

study of knowledge

22

ontological

who we are in relation to others

23

Thales

believed water was the origin of the universe

24

Anaximenes

believed air was the origin of the universe

25

Heracleitus

believed fire was the origin of the universe; constant change; nothing can be known through observation, so you must rely on logical thought

26

Empedocles

believed love & hate were fundamental emotions; developed organized & reasoned arguments

27

Pythagoras

math & numbers were the keys to the universe; introduced idea of the soul

28

Anaximander

believed in order, structure, and law-governed societies

29

Xenophanes

developed critique & rebuttal; influenced Socrates & Plato

30

Parmenides

relation between the way of truth & the way of opinion; opinions based on senses don't lead to truth