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Flashcards in Evolution Deck (26)
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Thomas Malthus

Thought growth of population was limited by adverse conditions


Ex; war
Disease
Limited resources
Carrying capacity

1

Favorable traits

Increase reproductive
Are inherited
Adapt to environment

2

Evolution

Resulting change of genetic makeup

3

Evidence for evolution

Structural
Physiological
Fossils
Anatomical structure
Embryology
Biochemistry

4

Structural (evidence for evolution)

Mimicry, camouflage, and claws

5

Physiological ( evidence for evolution )

Changes metabolically

Ex; bacteria/ antibiotics

6

Fossils ( evidence for evolution )

Trace remains of a dead organism
• sedimentary rocks
• develop from bones, shells, teeth, and stems
• mold/ imprint of organism

7

Law of superposition

Lowest stratum- oldest
Relative age- (younger/ older)
Absolute age- amount of sediment on it

8

Anatomical structures ( evidence for evolution )

• Homologous structures
• Analogous structure
• Vestigial structure

9

Homologous structures

Shared ancestry
Evolved from common ancestor

10

Analogous structure

Similar in function
No common ancestor

11

Vestigial structure

No useful function
Used to have a function

Ex; appendix or ostrich wings

12

Embryology ( evidence for evolution )

Study of the vertebrate embryo

13

Biochemistry ( evidence for evolution )

Study of DNA sequence/ patterns in

14

Patterns of evolution

1) co evolution
2) convergent evolution
3) divergent evolution

15

Co evolution

Change of 2 or more species in close association with each other.

Organisms that are ecologically intimate and influence each others evolution.

Ex; predator/ prey
Mimicry
Birds/ plants

16

Convergent evolution

Distantly related organisms evolve more similar traits because they live in the same environment.

17

Divergent evolution

Species were once similar and became more dissimilar; sometimes causes by different habitats.

Leads to adaptive radiation

Ex; red doc in forest/ kit fox in desert

18

Artificial selection

Example; dogs being bred for phenotypic reasons

19

Adaptive radiation

Many related species evolve from a common species

20

Adaption

A trait that increase chance of survival

21

Lamarck & Darwin

Lamarck thought traits were acquired and Darwin thought they were inherited

22

Charles Darwin

Boat was the HMS beagle
Studied in the Galápagos Islands
Collected finches ( different beaks )

23

Natural selection ( otherwise known as ) :

Survival of the fittest

24

4 key components of natural selection

1) variation ( creates differences )
2) competition
3) fitness
4) adaptation

25

What causes variation?

Miosis
Mutation
Disease