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Flashcards in Evidence for Evolution Deck (51)
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1

Populations

individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time

2

Believes of special creation

1) all species are independent of one another
2) life on Earth is young (6000 years old)
3) species are immutable

3

Immutable

incapable of change

special creation thought this

4

Pattern component

part of a scientific theory

a statement that summarizes a series of observations about the natural world

about facts or how things ARE in nature

5

Process component

part of a scientific theory

a mechanism that produces a pattern or set of observations

6

Scientific theory

a broad class of observations that is widely supported by overwhelming evidence

7

Plato and Typological Thinking

Plato claims that every organism was an example of a perfect essence, or type, created by God and that this type was unchanging

Plato explained slight variations as "perfect essence"

8

Aristotle and the Scale of Nature

Linear scheme of species arranged in increasing size and complexity

"lower" and "higher" species

9

Lamarck

proposed the first formal theory of evolution

believed that species were always producing "better" species

phenotype develops in response to environment (ex: giraffes neck grows)

10

Evolution

species are not static, but change over time

11

What was different about Darwin?

He claims that variation is crucial

12

Population thinking

variation is key

13

Typological thinking

variation is abnormal

species conform

the opposite of population thinking

14

3 things that make Darwin's ideas revolutionary

1) overturned the idea that species are static and unchanging (suggested change through time and common ancestry)

2) replaced typological thinking with population thinking

3) it was scientific. can make predictions through observation and experimentation

15

Descent with modification

species that lived in the past are the ancestors of the species existing today, and that species change through time

16

Pattern component of the theory of evolution

1) species change through time

2) species are related by common ancestry

17

Evidence for change through time (show change)

fossils, extinction, transitional features

vestigial traits

contemporary populations: like bacterial resistance and weeds resistance to herbicides

18

fossil

any trace of an organism that lived in the past

19

fossil record

consists of all the fossils that have been found on Earth and described in scientific literature

20

extant species

species living today

21

James Hutton

geologist

principle of uniformitarianism: the idea that geological processes occurring today are what occurred in the past

22

sedimentary rocks

form from sand or mud and other materials deposited in layers at locations such as beaches or river mouths

take long to form

23

geologic time scale

a sequence of named intervals called eons, eras, and periods that represent major events in Earth's history

a relative scale (exact age unknown)

24

radioactive decay

half-life can function as an absolute dating

"natural clock"

25

Earliest signs of life

3.4-3.8 billion years

26

Baron Cuvier

published report that there are extinct species

his report focused on large species like mammoths because it is very unlikely that these large, distinctive terrestrial animals would remain undiscovered if alive

27

law of succession

pattern of finding fossils of species with similarities to the living species succeeding them

Darwin connects that extinct forms are the ancestors of living forms

28

transitional feature

a trait in a fossil species that is intermediate between those of ancestral and derived species

29

Derived traits

a trait that differs from the ancestral trait

30

Ancestral trait

a trait present in the ancestor of the species