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Flashcards in EU Law Deck (33)
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Vertical direct effect

Obligations by EU law that can be enforced by individuals towards the member state


Horizontal direct effect

Obligations by EU law that allows rights to be enforced by individuals/companies towards other individuals or companies


European Council

- Formed by heads of EU countries governments
- Define the EU's priorities and political direction


Article 101

Prohibits agreements between companies which prevent, restrict or distort competition in the EU


Free movement of workers

A worker (employee) for an EU country is allowed to have residence and working permit in EU states


Courts of justice (3)

1. European court of Justice
2. General court (first instance)
3. European civil service tribunal

They are the only bodies allow to interpret EU laws & say that secondary legislation is not valid


EU council

- Composed by the ministers of each EU country
- Hand-in-hand with EU parliament, they accept/decline proposals from the European commission (budget & legislation)


EURATOM treaty

The specialist market for atomic energy
--> Treaty of Rome (1957)


Statutory product liability

- Gives consumers alternative of action of negligence
- Is concerned with a product's safety


ECSC treaty
--> place & date

There is a common market for coal & steel products. Strong production would mean that a country is gearing up.
--> Treaty of Paris (1951)


European Parliament

Together with the EU council, they decide if laws go through or not.
It keeps an eye on the EU budget


Freedom to provide services

Any individual has the freedom of providing services in a different member state temporarily


Direct applicability

Provision is applicable in a member state without the need of incorporation to national law
*(EU law covers the details of the case and is therefore sufficient without the need of national law)


Treaty of Lisbon
--> Date?

- EU was going too fast for some countries that felt like they lost sovereignty
- EU became a separate legal entity
- European Community disappears
- The European Parliament has more power concerning budget supervision & legislative power.
- 2007, Implemented in 2009


Direct effect

EU legal order may give individual rights enforceable before the national court
*(EU law does not cover the case in detail; Case is handled by the national court)


Free movement of goods

- Internal barriers are removed
- Prohibition of Quotas (quantitative restrict) unless for public health purposes


European Commission

- 1 commissioner per state/country
- Makes sure policies are implemented
- Can negotiate on behalf of the EU
- Proposes the budget & legislations to EU council & European Parliament


Freedom of establishment

The right for someone to set up a business in a member state and be treated equally as to nationals


European Union
--> initial members

1. Belgium
2. Germany
3. France
4. Luxembourg
5. Italy
6. the Netherlands


Article 102

It prohibits the abuse of one or more undertakings of a dominant position in the internal market


Dominance requirements (2)
--> Article 102

1. Define market
2. Specified % share


Abuse requirements (4)
--> Article 102

1. Unfair sales/purchase prices
2. Limiting production
3. Different conditions to the same transaction
4. Tying - Additional obligations


Principle of proportionality

To achieve its aims, the EU will only take the action it needs to and no more.


EU competition law
- Applicable to?

- Applicable to EU incorporated firms and whoever trades in the EU that could distort the market


EU competition prevention rules (3)

1. Article 101: Prevent restrictive parties by prohibiting anti-competitive agreements
2. Article 102: Prevent businesses from abusing their power
3. Prohibit mergers that may harm competition in the EU


Applicability of EU law (2)

1. Direct applicability
2. Direct effect
--> 2.1 Vertical direct effect
--> 2.2 Horizontal direct effect


Merger regulation

EU tests if the merger would significantly impede competition strengthening their dominance


European Union Institutions (5)

1. EU Council
2. European Council
3. European Commission
4. European Parliament
5. Court of Justice


Principle of supremacy

- EU law overrides national legal provisions in areas where it has provisions
- If national & EU law has a conflict, the parliament has to get rid of it


Principle of conferral

- EU can only act in sovereignty in matters discussed in treaties. Otherwise, member states have the power to deal with it themselves