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Flashcards in Ethnicity, Nationalism Deck (9)
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1

Ethnicity

- A social classification based on a common cultural heritage and selected cultural features such as language, religion, or dress
- Concept emerges from historical processes that incorporate distinct social groups into a single political structure under conditions of inequality
E.g. Fulbe identity in Northern Cameroon; Rwandan genocide
- Ethnicity can be fluid, malleable, ignored, or acknowledged in different situations

2

Example of Fulbe identity

Fulbe identity in Guider as something that could be claimed even if not born into it, by:
Learning language
Practice religion (Islam)
Practice way of life (high culture of western Sudan)

3

Nationality

Nationality is a sense of identification with and loyalty to a nation-state; membership, defined by citizenship, in a geopolitical sovereign state

4

Nation

Groups of people believed to share the same history, culture, language, and even the same physical substance

5

Nation-state

An ideal political unit in which national identity and political territory coincide

6

Nationalism

Government’s attempts to instill a sense of nationality into the citizens of a state

7

Nationalism

- Sometimes groups resist attempts at ‘nation-building’
They present a different kind of identity that persists within the boundaries of the nation-state
E.g. Quebec sovereignty movement, Parti Quebecois
- To try to limit this, nationalist ideologies will often incorporate some aspects of subordinate cultural groups
E.g. French and English as official languages
- Sometimes there is disagreement over what kind of ‘nation’ people are trying to build
Example of post-colonial Fiji, and continued strife between ethnic Fijians and Indo-Fijians

8

Nationalism in Australia

- Founded by the British as penal (exile) colony, then settler colony
- Land claimed as terra nullius
- Australian identity founded on racial and and cultural features of British colonists
- Ignored the existence of Aboriginal peoples
- Significant gain with Mabo court decision in 1992
- Similar to gain won by Aboriginal people in Canada in 2014 Supreme court decision

9

Nationalism in Ukraine

- April 26, 1986 nuclear reactor explosion in Ukraine
Chernobyl as key to the foundation of Ukraine as nation-state
- Revised idea of citizenship – from a kind of ‘natural’ category based on birth to a kind of negotiated category Petryna calls biological citizenship, where citizenship is mediated by science and technology
- So the damaged biology of population became grounds for social membership and basis for citizenship claims and claims for compensation