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How can managers use the job characteristics model (JCM) to design jobs?

1. Combine tasks: Put fragmented tasks back together to form a new, larger work module (job enlargement) to increase skill variety and task identity.

  2. Create natural work units: Design tasks that form an identifiable and meaningful whole to increase employee "ownership" of the work. Encourage employees to view their work as meaningful and important rather than as irrelevant and boring.

  3. Establish client (external or internal) relationships: Whenever possible, establish direct relationships between workers and their clients to increase skill variety, autonomy, and feedback.

  4. Expand jobs vertically: Vertical expansion gives employees responsibilities and controls that were formerly reserved for managers, which can increase employee autonomy.

  5. Open feedback channels: Direct feedback lets employees know how well they're performing their jobs and whether their performance is improving or not.