Flashcards in ERP RADIOLOGICAL OPS Add 4 Deck (30)
A person can be exposed to a hazardous material such as radiological material through four routes of entry:
Our bunker gear with SCBA donned can protect us from what type of radiation ?
It is an Inhalation Hazard
Sec Table 1
What type of Radiation can penetrate skin up to a 1/4 " ?
Sec Table 1
What can shield us from GAMMA particles ?
Several inches of:
Foot of dirt or water
Sec Table 1
What can shield us from Alpha particles ?
Inches of air
Sheet of paper
Sec Table 1
What can shield us from Beta particles ?
Approximately 1 inch:
Sec Table 1
A member person operating in an environment with the meter reading 50 mR/hr will receive a dose
of 50 mR if operating for 1 hour in that environment, or 25 mR if operating for ½ hour,
the duration of one SCBA bottle.
Agree or Disagree
Rad 50 measures rate or dose ?
• How fast the radiation energy is deposited, e.g. MPH – speedometer reading
• Measured in microRem/hr (μR/hr), milliRem/hr (mR/hr), or Rem/hr
Normal background radiation rate for the NYC area is
0.02 mR/hr to 0.05 mR/hr (20 μR/hr to 50
Unit must carry the Rad50 when:
• Out of quarters
• Performing AFID
• Responding to Complaints
• During the assessment of emergencies and fires
A Radiological Incident encompasses a situation where radiological meter readings are
Above background from a ** legitimate source** and the source has **not been released** from its
The source may also be a naturally emitting source. Readings **must be confirmed by a second meter** to establish the situation as a Radiological Incident.
How is a Radiological Incident Handled ? 5 steps
Managing a Radiological Incident
A. Confirm initial readings with a second meter
B. Determine the location of the radioactive source
C. Verify that the situation involves a legitimate source, which has not been released from its container
D. Transmit the appropriate 10-80 code
E. Zero out and don dosimeter ( specifies also for emergency sec 4.4)
Special Call a Haz-Mat Tech Unit to respond with other radiological metering
devices for events involving legitimate sources emitting When ??
Radiation levels greater than the Rad50 can detect.
For example, a package shipped according to DOT
guidelines can emit radiation levels as high as 200 mR/hr at the surface of the
A Radiological Emergency involves a source that is What ??
Readings must be confirmed by a second meter to establish the situation as a Radiological Emergency. Transmit the appropriate 10-80 code and specify “For a
Out of its container, either
accidentally or intentionally. A Radiological Emergency also encompasses a situation
where radiological meter readings are above what is expected for a specific location.
What is a RID ? What is the greatest danger ?
RID – Radiological Incendiary Device
• Radiological material involved in an intentionally set fire, also called “dirty fire”
• This type of an attack is used to delay First Responders
• The greatest dangers is from the expanding fire
• Expect contamination with potential internal and external exposures
Initial operations for victim rescue and fire suppression should not be impeded for rates in what range ?
FDNY’s Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs) If the Decision dose is 50, 25, 10, 5 REM What is the Emergency Activity Performed for each Dose ?
50 Rem Lifesaving for a Catastrophic Event
25 Rem Lifesaving or Protection of Large Populations
10 Rem Protection of Major Property
5 Rem General Operations at a Radiological Emergency
Because radiation fallout from an IND does not occur for approximately _______
after the detonation, units responding to an IND should not
enter the area of the detonation for at least ________
15 minutes, 15 minutes post-detonation
Levels of radiation decline exponentially as distance from the source
increases. If the distance from the radiological source is doubled, the
rate will drop to ¼ its original rate
An example to show you understand... Use 100r/hr as the source and you are now 4 feet away. What is the rate ?
100 R/hr------->25 R/hr------>6 R/hr------>2 mR/hr
1 foot------------>2 feet-------->4 feet------->64 feet
What is the most effective way to shield first responders from air borne radioactive particles while operating in the Hot and Warm Zones ??
Wear the appropriate PPE, especially respiratory protection.
Upon confirmation of a release from a radiological dispersal device or radiological incendiary device, units in the surrounding boroughs should
immediately begin to monitor their response area for any changes in the levels of background radiation using the Rad Documentation forms
What must members don besides full bunker gear and SCBA when at radiological emergency ?
Each member must don a dosimeter when operating at a Radiological Emergency
What is the appropriate 10 code for a Radiological Incident ?
10-80 No Code or Code 1
Prior to operating at a Radiological Emergency, units should:
• Don the appropriate PPE
• Use full respiratory protection
• Bring APR with adapter
• Zero out and Don Dosimeter
• Monitor the incident with radiological metering equipment such as RadAlert50( 50mr/hr), Canberra mini radiac (999R/hr), or Ludlum (100R/hr)
If the Rad50 reads 50 mR/hr and it is the only available meter on-scene,
units can continue to operate in full PPE with a personal dosimeter to monitor individual doses up to ??
10 Rem for firefighting and 25/50 Rem for rescue
What other tool may be helpful at radiological emergencies ?
The thermal imaging camera may also be a useful tool in managing the
life hazard by assisting in the location of victims, as well as dispersed
radiological material (some radiological elements emit heat and can be
picked up by the camera
Each member is responsible for monitoring his/her dose using the personal
dosimeter. When a member’s dosimeter reads a dose of 5 Rem:
• Notify the Officer
• Continue to notify the officer for each additional ???
5 Rem dose received thereafter with the following information:
o Activity being performed
o Radiological Rate and Dose
Members should also monitor time on air in the Hot Zone. Respiratory
protection is required to operate in this zone. If SCBA tank runs out, the
member should ??
Immediately switch to an APR if oxygen levels are
deemed sufficient for APR use.
Priority for Decontamination will depend on the extent of contamination, the location
of the contamination (i.e. contamination near the mouth implies ingestion of radioactive
material which is more serious than superficial contamination), as well as the nature of
a person’s injuries.
Priority for Decontamination
1) Patients with life-threatening injuries (i.e. injuries that affect ABCs)
2) Patients that are most severely contaminated but are not symptomatic
3) Discretion should be used to prioritize remaining contaminated patients
• Pregnant women
• Senior citizens
• Non-life threatening injuries