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Flashcards in Equine Diseases Deck (63)
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Discuss the signs, diagnosis and treatment of Sarcoids (most common skin tumor)

1) Signs- Ulcerated nodular masses
2) Diagnosis-Clinical presentation, Biopsy
3) Treatment-Immunotherapy (BCG)


Discuss the signs, diagnosis and treatment of Exuberant Granulation Tissue (Proud Flesh)

1) Signs-Pink moist mass on distal limb over previous injury
2) Diagnosis- Clinical presentation, History
3) Treatment- Surgical debulking, +/- skin graft, Topical preparations containing digestive enzymes(trypsin/papain)


Discuss the signs, diagnosis and treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

1) Diagnosis-Clinical presentation, Impression smear, Biopsy
2) Signs-Hairless areas, Unpigmented skin, Solar radiation(sunlight)
3) Treatment-Excision (surgical removal), Radiation therapy (prognosis guarded)


Discuss the signs, diagnosis and treatment of Melanoma

1) Signs/Diagnosis- Multiple tumors on hairless areas
2) Treatment- Cryosurgery(application of extreme cold to destroy diseased tissue), Cimetadine


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Rabies

1) Transmission-Bite of infected animal (raccoon, fox, skunk)
2) Signs-Dumb/Paralytic form(most common EQ form)-weakness, incoordination, tail paralysis, urine dribbling, colic. Aggressive form-photophobia, belligerence, grinding of teeth/obsessive chewing, seizures
3) Diagnosis-Ante-mortem-Fluorescent Antibody Test, Full thickness skin biopsy, Cheek epithelial cells. Post Mortem-Submit brain and spinal cord to laboratory
4) Treatment- None it's fatal
5) Prevention-Vaccination Rabvac-3 (Ft. Dodge) the only FDA approved Rabies vaccine for horses, Avoid exposure(Wire mesh fencing preventing wildlife access)


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Encephalomyelitis (Sleeping Sickness/West Nile Virus/Arbovirus)

1) Transmission- Bite of infected mosquito
2) Signs/Diagnosis-Fever, Depression/Stupor(state of near unconsciousness), Impaired vision, Incoordination, Circling, Head pressing
3) Treatment-Supportive care-NSAIDs, Antibiotics, Fluid replacement, Physical support/protection
4) Prevention: Vaccination(Should be administered every 3-4 months during mosquito season), Mosquito Control


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Equine Herpesvirus (Rhinopneumonitis/Herpes 1 & 4 Virus/Neurologic)

1) Transmission-Transmissible by direct aerosol
2) Signs/Diagnosis-Weakness, Ataxia, Paralysis(if adequate supportive care is provided horses can recover completely)
3) Treatment-Supportive care-NSAIDs, Antibiotics, Intensive nursing care for recumbent horses, rest
4) Prevention-Vaccination


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Equine Protozoal Myelitis (Sarcocystis neurona)

1) Transmission-consumption of contaminated pasture or feedstuffs
2) Signs- Dependent upon parasite’s location in CNS-Muscle atrophy(loss of muscle tissue), Obscure lameness, Asymmetric ataxia
3) Diagnosis- Western Blot Test- of questionable value-Serum: + test (ab’s in blood) does not mean active infection, CSF: sample is often contaminated w/small amount of blood making “positive” difficult to interpret result
4) Treatment- Ponazuril (Marquis), Sulfadiazine and Pyrimethamine (60-70% of cases improve w/tx), Vit E supplementation
5) Prevention-Vaccination of questionable value


Discuss the cause, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of Esophageal Obstruction(choke)

1) Cause- grain, hay, corn cobs, and apples
2) Signs- dysphagia(inability to swallow food or water), coughing, nasal discharge, drooling/salivation
3) Diagnosis- Physical examination for aspiration pneumonia, Nasoesophageal tube if cannot pass through
4) Treatment- a nasogastric tube and some type of lavage (washing)


Discuss the cause, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of Gastric Ulcers

1) Cause-Inflammation, Stress (in foals), Management (in adults)
2) Signs/Diagonsis- Salivation/grinding of teeth, Dorsal recumbency, Stunted growth
3) Treatment- Fluid management, Pain management, Re-establish GI tract function, Prevent infection


Discuss the cause, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of Colic (abdominal pain)

1) Cause-Gastrointestinal-Impaction, Intussusception(intestine have folded into another section of intestine), Volvulus(twisting and rotation of SI), Spasmodic(hypermotility), Genitourinary, Iatrogenic(caused by medical treatment), Inflammation, Inability to vomit
2) Signs-Rolling, Pawing, Getting up and down, Patchy sweating
3) Diagnosis- Nasogastric reflux, abdominocentesis, rectal exam, abdominal auscultation, mucous membranes, physical exam (TPR), history
4) Treatment- Fluid management, Pain management, Re-establish GI tract function, Prevent infection, Medical management of a surgical case of colic is fatal. Surgical intervention in a medical case of colic is highly counterproductive.


Discuss the cause, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of Potomac Horse Fever(Ehrlichia risticii)

1) Cause-No direct horse to horse transmission, Route of exposure is unknown
2) Signs-Loss of gut sounds, Fever, Depression, Loss of appetite, Laminitis
3) Diagnosis-Appropriate clinical signs in an endemic area, Serology-paired samples
4) Treatment-Antibiotics(Oxytetracycline), Supportive care(Fluid replacement, Correction of acid-base imbalance, Intestinal protection, NSAIDs)


Colic is a _____ not a diagnosis.

symptom (abdominal pain)


List 4 causes of diarrhea.

-Potomac Horse Fever
-Post-surgical complications


List 3 post-surgical complications of colic surgery.

-Dehiscence(wound ruptures along surgical suture.)
-Abdominal wall herniation
-Jugular vein thrombophlebitis


Discuss the diagnosis and prevention of Equine Infectious Anemia (Swamp Fever)

1) Diagnosis-Coggins Test (which is required for interstate movement of horses)
2) Prevention-Good management


Discuss the diagnosis and prevention of Tetanus (Clostridium tetani/Anaerobic Bacterial disease)

1) Diagnosis- History of puncture wound, Absent or unknown vaccination history, Symptoms(erect ears, sawhorse stance, erect tail, stiff movements)
2) Prevention-Vaccination


Discuss the diagnosis and prevention of Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

1) Diagnosis-Inability to swallow, muscle weakness, easily fatigued
2) Prevention-Vaccination
3) Treatment-Penicillin


Which Immunology disease is a reportable disease?

Equine Infectious Anemia


Discuss the causes, symptoms, treatments and prevention of Recurrent Uveitis

1) Cause- Leptospira and Onchocerca implicated
2) Signs-Lacrimation, Conjunctivitis, Corneal edema, cloudy anterior chamber
3) Treatment- Corticosteroids(Topical and Systemic), Mydriatics, NSAIDs
4) Prevention-Change bedding, decrease dust, eliminate low branches


Discuss the causes, symptoms, treatments and prevention of Corneal ulcer

1) Cause-Injury/trauma
2) Signs- Blepharospasm(involuntary closure of the eyelids), Lacrymation, Photophobia(eye discomfort in bright light), Positive Fluorescein stain
3) Treatment- Mydriatics(dilating the pupil), Topical antibiotics
4) Prevention-Keep away from fences and sharp objects


T/F While Encephalomyelitis is a public health concern there is no transmission from horses to people.



The most common cause of hoof cracks is?



Understand how corns occur and how they can progress if not treated.

-These are a type of bruise trauma injury that is caused by impact and appears reddish because of the damaged tissues and blood vessels. The corns can be stand alone dry bruises or they can become moist and infected.
-Horses that work in hard graveled terrain may be more prone to bruising and corns.
-Corns are found in the sole at the angle formed by the wall and the bar of the sole. (This most commonly occurs inside the front feet)


What is thrush and canker?

-They are both a degenerative condition of the frog characterized by infection and blackening of the affected area. It may penetrate the horny tissue into the underlying sensitive structures of the foot. Can also cause infection of the sulcus and grooves of the frog by anaerobic bacteria.
-CANKER invades the horn of the frog anywhere throughout its structure
-THRUSH is limited to the lateral and medial sulci or the base of the frog if a fissure is present.
-Canker generally originates in the frog and can be mistaken for thrush in the early stages.


What is the treatment of thrush and canker?

-Iodine or a commercial remedy.
-You should also keep the feet dry and trimmed


What is the prognosis of thrush and canker and what affects the prognosis?

With good aggressive treatment (ex. 7-10 days), the treatment should control the canker. Once the tissue is healed it is rare for the disease to reoccur. In some cases the canker will return before completely going away.


What is another name for gravel, its cause, treatment and prognosis?

-Gravel is also called Abscess and is a common term describing the coronary band.
-CAUSE forms as a result of bruising to the sole, frog or heel bulbs, or as a result of a foreign body or penetrating wound.
-TREATMENT would be by exposing the infection and relieving pressure. You can do this by soaking the hoof in Epsom salts or osmotic draw such as iodine or sugar.
-PROGNOSIS for a simple foot abscess is excellent, and following drainage horses will return to soundness rapidly and totally. In severe cases the prognosis is okay but can take considerably longer to return to full soundness.


What type and age of horses are commonly affected by navicular disease?

Common in Quarter Horses, Thoroughbreds, and Warm bloods. This could be from a hereditary predisposition which may be related to upright conformation. It is commonly seen in horses of 7-14 years old.


List four signs of Navicular disease:

1) Tendency to land toe first
2) Stumbling or tripping
3) Excessive heel growth
4) Worse pain on rough, uneven ground