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Flashcards in EQ3 Deck (18)
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1

What is the background of the Phillipines?

made of 7107 islands
25 percent bigger than UK
101 million population
MIC: GDP 7000$ in 2014
mostly mountains- people live and work on slopes and steep land.

2

What natural hazards is the Phillipines vulnerable to ?

volcanoes and earthquakes - lies on convergent plate boundary
tsunamis- coast faces Pacific Ocean
Typhoons- lies on southeast asias major typhoon belt
flooding
Monsoons
Landslides - steep topography, high deforestation, high rainfall

3

What were the global impacts of mount Pinatubo?

1991, Phillipines
Ash and SO2 cloud 32km tell deposited in Indian Ocean
Damage to aeroplanes west of Phillipines
SO2 cloud circumnavigated lower stratosphere causing global cooling
1991-1993- earth cooled 0.6 degrees C

4

What were the global impacts of the tohoku tsunami ?

2011, Japan
Debris carried through North Pacific reaching coast of North America along with radioactive seawater
Buildings destroyed

5

what are the 4 stages of the hazard management cycle?

response, recovery, mitigation, preparedness

6

list some strategies used to modify the event.

land use zoning
hazard resistant design
engineering defences
diversion of lava flows

7

how does land use zoning modify the event?

1) stops construction in high risk areas
2) establishes an efficient communication network against the hazard
3) identifies the high risk areas and prevents urban sprawl towards them

8

how can the government help modify the event through land use zoning?

1) establishing regulations that prevent development in hazardous locations
2) providing incentives that encourage development in safe locations
3) informing landowners about the risks and benefits of development in locations throughout the community

9

list some strategies used to modify vulnerability and resilience.

hi-tech monitoring
prediction
education
community preparedness
adaptation

10

list some strategies to modify the loss.

emergency, short and longer term aid and insurers (NGOs and insurers) and the actions of the affected communities themselves.

11

What does root causes mean in the PAR model?

Weak governance with limited access to power structures and resources. Dysfunctional cultural, political, and economic systems.

12

What does dynamic pressures mean in the PAR model?

Lack of local organisations, training, skills, development, ethical standards, communication.
Macro forces.

13

What are macro-forces ?

Rapid population change
Urbanisation
Financial mismanagement
Degradation of natural systems

14

What do unsafe living conditions mean in the PAR model?

Dangerous locations, lack of resistant buildings, poverty, disparity, lack of preparation, no warning systems, no response teams, endemic disease.

15

Name some examples of disparity

Ethnicity
Socio economic status
Gender
Age
Citizenship status
Education level
Disability

16

What does geographical modification mean in the PAR model?

Distribution, spatial extent, magnitude, timing, Frequency

17

How can hazards be turned into opportunities ?

Geothermal energy
Heating
Tourism
Recreation
Minerals +rocks
Fertile soils
Microorganisms

18

What are the sections of hazard profiles ?

Magnitude
Speed of Onset
Duration
Special area
Frequency
Cost of damage
Death rate
Recovery rate
Spatial prediction (whether it's on somewhere you expect the hazard to happen like a plate boundary)