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241

Operant extinction would NOT be the treatment-of-choice when:
A. an alternative behavior cannot be identified.
B. the behavior has been reinforced on a continuous schedule.
C. a temporary increase in the behavior cannot be tolerated.
D. the baseline levels of the behavior cannot be established.

C. a temporary increase in the behavior cannot be tolerated - CORRECT Extinction often produces an initial "extinction burst" (temporary increase in the target behavior). Consequently, it would be contraindicated when a temporary increase in the behavior cannot be tolerated. Extinction is accomplished by withholding all reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior.
A. an alternative behavior cannot be identified - Incorrect It would be helpful to be simultaneously reinforcing an alternative behavior, but the absence of an alternative behavior would not rule out the use of extinction.
B. the behavior has been reinforced on a continuous schedule - Incorrect Behaviors that have been reinforced on a continuous schedule are easier to extinguish than those that have been reinforced on an intermittent schedule.
D. the baseline levels of the behavior cannot be established - Incorrect It would be useful to have a baseline reading to determine the effects of the extinction procedure, but the absence of a baseline measure would not rule out the use of extinction.
(Learning Theory & Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies)

242

Rosenhan’s research involving “pseudopatients" who were admitted to psychiatric hospitals:
a. confirmed that participation in a research study alters the behavior of research participants.
b. demonstrated that labeling a person changes the person's behavior.
c. showed that the environment influences how a person's behavior is perceived.
d. showed that “central traits" have a greater impact than other traits on impression formation.

c. showed that the environment influences how a person's behavior is perceived - CORRECT: In the pseudopatient study, researchers were judged by hospital staff to be schizophrenic even though they acted normally while in the hospital. Rosenhan concluded that these results demonstrated the impact of the social environment on impression
formation.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

243

A student who is chronically depressed is most likely to attribute the low score she received on her final exam to:
a. her lack of ability.
b. the lack of time she had to study.
c. the difficulty of some exam items.
d. the instructor's ineptitude.

a. her lack of ability - CORRECT: Research on the self-serving bias has shown that there are exceptions to its predictions. For example, depressed people are likely to attribute their failures to internal (dispositional), stable, and global factors.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

244

The statement, “You tripped, but I was pushed" BEST illustrates which of the following?
a. self-perception bias
b. actor-observer effect
c. fundamental attribution bias
d. self-monitoring

b. actor-observer effect - CORRECT: In this situation, you are attributing your own behavior to a situational factor but the behavior of another person to a dispositional factor. This is consistent with the
actor-observer effect.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

245

The tendency to overestimate the role of dispositional factors when inferring the cause of
another person's behavior is referred to as the .
a. self-serving bias
b. actor-observer effect
c. fundamental attribution bias
d. self-perception bias

c. fundamental attribution bias - CORRECT: The fundamental attribution error occurs when making attributions about the behavior of another person and involves attributing that behavior to dispositional factors.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

246

A problem with relying on the representativeness heuristic when making a judgment about the characteristics of another person is that doing so:
a. causes over-reliance on statistical data.
b. doesn't take base rate data into account.
c. overestimates the degree to which dispositional factors affect behavior.
d. doesn't take into account the limitations of working memory.

b. doesn't take base rate data into account - CORRECT: The representativeness heuristic involves basing your judgment about the likelihood
that a person, object, or event belongs to a particular category on how similar the person,
object, or event is to that category while ignoring base rate data.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

247

A friend of yours says, “Every time I plan a vacation, there's always a crisis at home or work so that I can't go." Assuming that this is not really true, your friend's statement best illustrates which of the following?
a. psychological reactance
b. base rate fallacy
c. illusory correlation
d. fundamental attribution bias

c. illusory correlation - CORRECT: The illusory correlation is a cognitive error that occurs when we believe that two unrelated events are related.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

248

On the basis of his investigation of the relationship between affiliation and anxiety, Schachter concluded that which of the following best accounted for the desire of high-anxiety research participants to wait with other high-anxiety participants?
a. demand characteristics
b. evaluation apprehension
c. relief from discomfort
d. social comparison

d. social comparison - CORRECT: Because high-anxiety participants in Schachter's study preferred to wait with others only when the others were also highly-anxious, Schachter concluded that the desire to affiliate is best explained by social comparison (i.e., the participants’ desire to evaluate their own
anxiety by comparing it to the anxiety of another participant).
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

249

Berscheid’s (1983) emotion-in-relationship model proposes that strong positive emotions are LESS likely to be elicited during the later stages of an intimate relationship than in its initial stages because:
a. in the later stages, each person is more self-centered and less other-centered.
b. in the later stages, each partner's behavior has become more predictable.
c. in the later stages, each partner works harder to be sensitive to the other’s needs.
d. over time, people become "emotionally immune" to the behaviors of others.

b. in the later stages, each partner's behavior has become more predictable - CORRECT: The emotion-in-relationship model predicts that emotion in close relationships is aroused by unusual or unexpected events. In the later stages of a relationship, a partner is less likely to do something unexpected (e.g., an extravagant birthday present is a surprise during the first and second years of a relationship, but, by the 12th year, it has come to be expected.)
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

250

Equity theory predicts that a person's satisfaction in a close personal relationship is related to the person's:
a. perceptions of his/her own contribution/reward ratio and the ratio of his/her partner.
b. perceptions of the relative utility of the relationship.
c. comparisons between his/her current relationship and past relationships.
d. comparisons between his/her own relationship outcomes and the relationship outcomes of others.

a. perceptions of his/her own contribution/reward ratio and the ratio of his/her partner - CORRECT: Equity theory predicts that we are satisfied with relationships that we perceive to be equitable. To evaluate the equity of a relationship, we compare our input/outcome (contribution/reward) ratio to the ratio of the other person.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

251

Self-verification theory predicts that a husband who has low self-esteem and is overweight and chronically depressed will prefer his wife to:
a. not comment on his abilities, weight, and mood.
b. make neutral comments about his abilities, weight, and mood.
c. confirm his negative self-evaluations.
d. contradict his negative self-evaluations.

c. confirm his negative self-evaluations - CORRECT: Self-verification theory predicts that we seek feedback that is consistent with our self-evaluations.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

252

As described by Kobasa et al. (1982), the personality characteristic of hardiness is characterized by which of the following?
a. confidence, competence, and control
b. commitment, challenge, and control
c. common sense, commitment, and capability
d. capability, challenge. and commitment

b. commitment, challenge, and control - CORRECT: Commitment, challenge, and control are the three components that Kobasa et al. identified as being characteristic of hardiness.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

253

Sherif used the “autokinetic effect" to study:
a. the frustration-regression hypothesis.
b. psychological reactance.
c. conformity to group norms.
d. bases of social power.

c. conformity to group norms - CORRECT: Sherif used the autokinetic effect to evaluate the willingness of a person to confirm to the group norm in an ambiguous situation.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

254

According to Moscovici (1985), group members espousing the minority position are most likely to change the opinion of the majority when:
a. members supporting the minority position have accumulated “idiosyncrasy credits."
b. members supporting the minority position are consistent in expressing their opinion without appearing dogmatic.
c. the number of people representing the minority is only slightly less than the number of people representing the majority.
d. the minority leader is viewed by members of the majority as having legitimate power.

b. members supporting the minority position are consistent in expressing their opinion without appearing dogmatic - CORRECT: Moscovici argues that, to change the opinion of the majority, the minority must present its position in a firm, consistent manner without appearing dogmatic.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

255

A research study finds that instituting a law that raises the minimum age for purchasing alcohol from 18 to 21 increases underage drinking among college students. This finding is consistent with the predictions of:
a. the inoculation model.
b. cognitive dissonance theory.
c. psychological reactance theory.
d. the deindividuation model.

c. psychological reactance theory - CORRECT: In the situation described in the question, the college students are doing the opposite of what is required by law (i.e., are doing the opposite of what is desired in a situation in which their personal freedom is being threatened). This is referred to as psychological reactance.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

256

A supervisor attempts to increase his influence by being sensitive to the needs of his subordinates and by acting as a role model. This supervisor is relying on which of the bases of power identified by French and Raven?
a. referent
b. legitimate
c. expert
d. charismatic

a. referent - CORRECT: A person has referent power when he is admired, liked, or respected by other people or is viewed as a role model.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

257

According to the theory of planned behavior, the three components of a person's behavioral intention are:
a. attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control.
b. degree of Liking or attraction, beliefs, and action tendencies.
c. level of ability, degree of motivation, and extent of behavioral control.
d. attitudinal strength, social desirability, and perceived self-efficacy.

a. attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control - CORRECT: The theory of planned behavior proposes that attitudes are a good predictor of behavior when the three attitudinal components of a person's behavioral intention are measured — the person's attitude toward engaging in the behavior; what the person believes other people think he or she should do (i.e., his/her perception of subjective norms); and the person's perceived behavioral control.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

258

When a communicator is mildly to moderately credible, attitude change is greatest when the level of discrepancy between the initial positions of the communicator and the recipient of the communication is:
a. small.
b. moderate.
c. large.
d. unpredictable.

b. moderate - CORRECT: The research has found that change in attitude is greatest when the initial level of discrepancy is in the moderate range, especially when the communicator is mildly to
moderately credible.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

259

Aronson and Mills examined the effects severity of initiation into a group on subsequent attitudes toward the group. Results of their study indicated that, compared to women who underwent a mild initiation, women who underwent a severe initiation as a precondition of group membership:
a. rated the group as less interesting and enjoyable.
b. rated the group as more interesting and enjoyable.
c. were more likely to drop out of the group.
d. were more likely to dislike fellow group members.

b. rated the group as more interesting and enjoyable - CORRECT: As predicted by cognitive dissonance theory, when women had to undergo a difficult initiation to get into a dull group, they experienced dissonance and, to reduce dissonance (i.e., to justify the initiation). they described the dull group as being enjoyable.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

260

According to the elaboration likelihood model, a person is most likely to rely on the “central route" for processing information when:
a. he thinks the message is boring.
b. everyone else in the group agrees with the message.
c. the message is within his “latitude of acceptance."
d. he is in a neutral or slightly negative mood.

d. he is in a neutral or slightly negative mood - CORRECT: The elaboration likelihood model predicts that we're more likely to use the central
route when we‘re in a neutral or slightly negative mood but the peripheral route when we’re in
a positive mood.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

261

Sherifs social judgment theory predicts that a person's "latitude of rejection" is largest when the person:
a. has high ego-involvement with the target issue.
b. has an external locus of control.
c, is unfamiliar with the target issue.
d. is in a good mood.

a. has high ego-involvement with the target issue - CORRECT: According to social judgment theory, the magnitude of the three categories of judgment
are affected by the individual's level of ego-involvement in the target issue. Not surprisingly,
when a person has high ego-involvement, he/she is less likely to be persuaded (i.e., his/her
latitude of rejection is large).
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

262

To "inoculate" someone against a persuasive message. you would:
a. warn the person that she is about to hear a message designed to change her beliefs.
b. provide the person with information that supports her current beliefs.
c. provide the person with strong arguments against her beliefs.
d. provide the person with arguments against her beliefs and weak refutations of those arguments.

d. provide the person with arguments against her beliefs and weak refutations of those arguments - CORRECT: McGuire derived his notion of attitude inoculation from the use of inoculation in medicine. It involves providing the recipient of a message with arguments against his/her position and weak counterarguments prior to hearing the message.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

263

Berkowitz (1971) revised the original frustration-aggression hypothesis by proposing that frustration leads to aggression when:
a. acting aggressively is likely to produce desirable outcomes.
b. there are aggressive cues in the environment.
c. the aggressor has an internal locus of control.
d. the target of the aggression is of lower-status than the aggressor.

b. there are aggressive cues in the environment - CORRECT: Berkowitz (1971) found that frustration leads to a “readiness for aggression" but that
the actual expression of aggression requires anger arousal plus the presence of aggressive
cues.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

264

The research suggests that people who frequently view TV shows that depict violent acts:
a. tend to overestimate the chance that they will be the victims of violence.
b. tend to underestimate the chance that they will be the victims of violence.
c. tend to overestimate the chance that they will be the perpetrators of violence.
d. are no different than those who do not view violent shows when estimating the chance they will be the victims or perpetrators of violence.

a. tend to overestimate the chance that they will be the victims of violence - CORRECT: The results of the existing studies generally confirm that frequent viewing of media violence is associated with an increased fear of the environment, including fear of being the victim of violence.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

265

Milgram (1965) found that participants in his study were more willing to administer electric shocks to another person when they couldn't see the victim and the victim couldn't see them. This finding is predicted by Zimbardo’s notion of:
a. deindividuation.
b. pluralistic ignorance.
c. self-verification.
d. psychological reactance.

a. deindividuation - CORRECT: Zimbardo‘s detndividuation model predicts that we're more likely to act aggressively when we can do so anonymously.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

266

________ racism is occurring when members of minority groups consistently have less access than members of the majority group to quality education, good jobs, appropriate medical care, and adequate housing.
a. Cultural
b. Symbolic
c. Institutional
d. internalized

c. Institutional - CORRECT: Institutional racism refers to denial or restriction of material conditions (e.g., access to quality education or gainful employment) and access to power to members of minority groups.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

267

A national survey finds that, while most people are in favor of integration in the workplace, the majority also oppose affirmative action. This finding is best explained by which of the following? ,
a. the illusory correlation
b. the contact hypothesis
c. symbolic racism theory
d. realistic group conflict theory

c. symbolic racism theory - CORRECT: One of the characteristics of “symbolic racists" is a tendency to support equality as an abstract principle while opposing concrete methods for achieving it.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

268

To decrease hostility between groups of junior high school students, you would be best advised to:
a. increase opportunities for contact under pleasant conditions.
b. have a respected member of the community speak to the students about the benefits of cooperation.
c. have each group select a representative to discuss ways to reduce hostility.
d. assign the students goals that can be achieved only through intergroup cooperation.

d. assign the students goals that can be achieved only through intergroup cooperation - CORRECT: The Robber‘s Cave Study demonstrated that the best way to reduce intergroup hostility is to introduce super-ordinate goals - i.e., goals that can be achieved only thought intergroup cooperation.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

269

Research investigating the effects of the “jigsaw method“ in the classroom demonstrated that it:
a. increases aggression, especially toward the provocateur.
b. reduces ethnic stereotyping.
c. increases intergroup competition.
d. increases cooperation but reduces academic achievement.

b. reduces ethnic stereotyping - CORRECT: Introduction of the jigsaw method into the classroom has been found to have a number
of beneficial effects including raising self-esteem, improving cooperation, and reducing ethnic
stereotyping. In terms of academic achievement, it tends to improve the performance of minority-group children and either increase or have no effect on the performance of majority-group children.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

270

A person is most likely to be helped in an emergency situation when:
a. there is a single bystander.
b. there are several bystanders.
c. there are several bystanders of the same gender.
d. there are several bystanders of the opposite gender.

a. there is a single bystander - CORRECT: Research on bystander apathy has shown that. the greater the number of bystanders,
the less likely that a victim will receive help.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)