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61

A student participant in a research study involving matched pairs decides to withdraw from the study.‭ ‬The chief investigator‭ (‬who is a licensed psychologist‭) ‬stresses to the student the importance of the student’s data to the study,‭ ‬but he insists that his data be withdrawn.‭ ‬The investigator should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. warn the student that withdrawal from the study will affect his course grade.
b. remind the student that he signed an informed consent and cannot now request that his data be withdrawn.
c. tell the student that his name will be removed from all data and include his data in the study.
d. allow the student to withdraw from the study.

d. allow the student to withdraw from the study. (CORRECT) This answer is most consistent with ethical guidelines. Standard 8.02(a) states that research participants must be free to “decline to participate and to withdraw from the research once participation has begun”; and Principle I.24 similarly states that research participants must have “the option to refuse or withdraw at any time, without prejudice.” This issue is addressed by Standard 8.02 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle I.24 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
a. warn the student that withdrawal from the study will affect his course grade. - Incorrect Simply warning the student of the negative consequences of withdrawing from the study would be coercive and, therefore, a violation of the ethical guidelines.
b. remind the student that he signed an informed consent and cannot now request that his data be withdrawn.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

62

Dr.‭ ‬Pavel Petrovich,‭ ‬a licensed psychologist,‭ ‬has been seeing a client in therapy for over fourteen months with no apparent change in the client's symptoms.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Petrovich should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. advise the client that he is ethically obligated to terminate therapy.
b. raise for discussion the possibility of termination and referral to another therapist.
c. search the literature for discussions of similar cases that have been treated and reported by others.
d. continue seeing the client since fourteen months is not an unusually long time for therapy to continue without a significant change in symptoms.

b. raise for discussion the possibility of termination and referral to another therapist.
CORRECT The action described in this answer is most consistent with ethical requirements. Standard 10.10(a), for example, states that “psychologists terminate therapy when it becomes reasonably clear that the client/patient no longer needs the service, is not likely to benefit, or is being harmed by continued service,” and Standard 10.10(c) states that, prior to termination, psychologists “suggest alternative service providers as appropriate.” Termination of therapy is addressed in Standard 10.10 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle II.37 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

63

If a psychologist acts as both a fact witness for the plaintiff and an expert witness for the court in a criminal trial,‭ ‬she has acted:‬‬
a. unethically by accepting dual roles.
b. ethically as long as she did not have a prior relationship with the plaintiff.
c. ethically as long as she clarifies her roles with all parties.
d. ethically as long as she obtains a waiver from the court.

c. ethically as long as she clarifies her roles with all parties. (Correct Answer) According to ethical guidelines, accepting multiple roles may be acceptable as long as certain conditions are met – e.g., as long as the psychologist clarifies the nature of the multiples relationships with all involved parties (see Standard 3.05 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle I.26 of the Canadian Code of Ethics). In addition, the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists states that acting as a consultant for one party and a fact witness for another may be acceptable as long as the psychologist clarifies his/her roles with both parties and acts in a way that does not compromise his/her judgment and objectivity. The adoption of multiple roles is addressed in the ethics codes published by the American and Canadian Psychological Associations and in the APA’s Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

64

A couple brings their ten-year-old son to therapy at the suggestion of his school counselor who is concerned because the boy has started arguing with his teacher and getting into physical fights with his classmates.‭ ‬After several sessions with the boy and his family,‭ ‬you receive a letter from the school principal requesting information about the boy's condition,‭ ‬and a signed release from the boy's parents is included with the letter.‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬you should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. refuse to release the records to anyone but a licensed psychologist.
b. refuse to release the records to anyone but the boy’s parents.
c. release only that information you believe to be relevant to the school’s concerns.
d. release photocopies of your complete file on the boy and his family.

c. release only that information you believe to be relevant to the school’s concerns.
(CORRECT) Since the boy’s parents have signed a release, you would ordinarily provide information to the school principal – but not necessarily all of the information that has been requested. The most ethical course of action in this situation would be to release only information that is relevant to the school's role in the boy's treatment. Doing so would be consistent with the provisions of Standard 4.04(a) of the APA’s Ethics Code, which states that written and oral reports include “only information germane to the purpose for which the communication is made.” It is also consistent with the provisions of Principles I.37 and 39 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

65

Whenever her clients cancel an appointment with Dr.‭ ‬Penny Pincher within less than‭ ‬24‭ ‬hours of the appointment,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Pincher routinely bills the client’s insurance company for her full hourly fee. ‭ ‬This practice is:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. illegal and unethical.
b. illegal but ethical.
c. legal and ethical.
d. legal but unethical.

a. illegal and unethical. (CORRECT) The practice described in this question represents insurance fraud, which is both illegal and unethical. Billing an insurance company for missed appointments would be acceptable only if the company agreed to this practice (which is, of course, unlikely). For questions about insurance coverage, always choose the answer that is most consistent with legal and ethical requirements.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

66

When conducting research with human participants,‭ ‬a psychologist should be aware that:‬‬‬‬
a. participants must be debriefed as soon as possible after their participation in the study,‭ ‬especially when the study has involved deception. ‬‬‬‬b. participants must be debriefed after their participation in the study only if the psychologist believes that not doing so will result in harm to them.
c. participants must be debriefed after their participation only if the study places them at‭ “‬high risk.‭” ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
d. debriefing of research participants is at the discretion of the psychologist.

a. participants must be debriefed as soon as possible after their participation in the study,‭ ‬especially when the study has involved deception. ‬‬‬‬(CORRECT) Standard 8.08 of the Ethics Code requires psychologists to inform participants promptly following their participation in the study about its nature, results, and conclusions; and Principle III.26 of the Canadian Code of Ethics requires psychologists to debrief participants as soon as possible after their involvement in a study when there has been incomplete disclosure about the study’s purpose. Consequently, of the answers given, this one is most consistent with ethical guidelines. Debriefing of research participants is addressed in Standard 8.08 of the APA’s Ethic Code and Principles II.44 and III.26 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
b. participants must be debriefed after their participation in the study only if the psychologist believes that not doing so will result in harm to them.
c. participants must be debriefed after their participation only if the study places them at‭ “‬high risk.‭” ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
d. debriefing of research participants is at the discretion of the psychologist.
(Ethics & Professional Issues Online - 5162)

67

Which of the following best describes ethical guidelines regarding sexual intimacies with ‬former therapy clients?‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients under any circumstances.
b. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients for at least one year following the termination of therapy.
c. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients in certain circumstances (‬e.g.,‭ ‬when there is a risk of exploitation)‬.
h former therapy clients.
d. Psychologists are ‬not prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients.‬‬‬‬

c. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients in certain circumstances (‬e.g.,‭ ‬when there is a risk of exploitation)‬. (Correct Answer)‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ Standard 10.08 of the APA’s Ethics Code states that sexual intimacies with former therapy clients may be acceptable two years after termination of therapy when certain conditions are met (e.g., when there is no exploitation of the client), while Principle II.27 of the Canadian Code of Ethics states that sexual intimacies with former therapy clients must be avoided when “the power relationship reasonably could be expected to influence the client’s decision making.” The APA’s Ethics Code and the Canadian Code of Ethics both discourage psychologists from becoming sexually involved with former therapy clients.
a. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients under any circumstances. (Incorrect)
b. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients for at least one year following the termination of therapy.
d. Psychologists are ‬not prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients.‬‬‬‬
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

68

Carl Jung believed that a client's transference:
a. is a fantasy that distracts the client from reality.
b. represents “‬mixed feelings” ‬toward the therapist. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
c. is a form of "‬acting out.‭"
d. reflects the client’s personal and collective unconscious.

d. reflects the client’s personal and collective unconscious. (Correct Answer) The correct answer to this question should have been easy to identify if you’re at all familiar with Jung's work, since only one of the answers includes language that is associated with his analytical psychology. Jung viewed transference as the projection of both the personal and collective unconscious.
a. is a fantasy that distracts the client from reality. (Incorrect)
b. represents “‬mixed feelings” ‬toward the therapist. (Incorrect)
c. is a form of‭ "‬acting out.‭" (Incorrect)
(Clinical Psychology)

69

Margaret Mahler proposed that the development of a sense of self is the related to:
a. separation-individuation.
b. projective identification.
c. pseudomutuality.
d. assimilation-accommodation.

a. separation-individuation. CORRECT Mahler distinguishes between two phases that contribute to the development of a unique sense of self – symbiosis and separation-individuation. Separation-individuation is triggered by the child’s ability to separate from his/her primary caregiver. It begins at about 4 to 5 months of age when a child who is being held by his/her caregiver is able to lean away to scan the environment.
b. projective identification.
Incorrect Melanie Klein used the term projective identification to refer to projecting disliked or undesirable aspects of the internal object (self) onto an external object (caregiver).
c. pseudomutuality.
Incorrect Pseudomutuality describes a relationship between family members that appears to be healthy (is open and mutually empathic) but is not.
d. assimilation-accommodation.
Incorrect Assimilation and accommodation are terms used by Piaget to describe the modification and development of cognitive schemas.
(Clinical Psychology)

70

According to Irvin Yalom,‭ ________‬in group therapy is the analogue of the therapist-client relationship in individual therapy.‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. universality
b. identification
c. cohesiveness
d. alliance

c. cohesiveness - CORRECT Yalom argues that the therapeutic relationship is the sine qua non of effective individual therapy and, therefore, that there must be a comparable phenomenon in group therapy. Yalom uses the term cohesiveness to refer to the various relationships that occur in a group – i.e., the relationships between group members and between each member and the therapist and the relationship between each member and the group itself. For Yalom, cohesiveness is the primary mode of help in group therapy, with highly cohesive groups having better outcomes.
(Clinical Psychology)

71

According to Howard et al.‭’‬s‭ (‬1996‭) ‬phase model,‭ ‬which of the following is most likely to be affected during the first few sessions of psychotherapy‭?‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. coping skills
b. severity of symptoms
c. insight
d. feelings of hopelessness

d. feelings of hopelessness - CORRECT Howard and his colleagues (1996) have identified a predictable relationship between number of therapy sessions and therapy outcomes. Howard et al.’s phase model distinguishes between three phases of psychotherapy: remoralization, remediation, and rehabilitation. Remoralization occurs during the first few therapy sessions and is characterized by a decline in feelings of hopelessness (K. Howard et al., Evaluation of psychotherapy: Efficacy, effectiveness, and patient progress, (American Psychologist, 51, 1059-1064, 1996).
(Clinical Psychology)

72

From the perspective of feminist therapy,‭ ‬therapist self-disclosure is:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. contraindicated because it puts the client in a passive role.
b. necessary during the early stages of therapy to encourage the client''s participation.
c. a means of fostering a special bond between the client and the therapist.
d. useful for promoting an egalitarian relationship between the therapist and client.

d. useful for promoting an egalitarian relationship between the therapist and client.
CORRECT Feminist therapists view sharing their own life experiences with clients as a way of promoting an egalitarian relationship. A key characteristic of feminist therapy is its emphasis on an egalitarian relationship.
a. contraindicated because it puts the client in a passive role. - Incorrect Promoting a passive role in a client is discouraged in feminist therapy, but therapist self-disclosure (if done appropriately) is not considered a contributor to passivity.
b. necessary during the early stages of therapy to encourage the client''s participation. - Incorrect This describes one use of self-disclosure, but this response doesn't best describe the role of self-disclosure in feminist therapy.
c. a means of fostering a special bond between the client and the therapist. - Incorrect Feminist therapists generally discourage developing a “special bond” because doing so can foster the client’s dependence on the therapist.
(Clinical Psychology)

73

In contrast to traditional approaches to psychotherapy,‭ ‬culturally sensitive approaches attempt to understand a client’s experience of an illness within the client’s cultural context.‭ ‬In other words,‭ ‬culturally sensitive approaches adopt an ______ ‬perspective.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. emic
b. etic
c. emetic
d. endogenous

a. emic - CORRECT The terms “emic” and “etic” were originally used by linguistic anthropologists but are now also used by psychologists interested in cross-cultural psychotherapy. Traditional psychiatry and psychotherapy reflect an etic approach ("view from the outside"), while cultural psychiatry and psychotherapy adopt an emic perspective ("view from the inside"). Culturally sensitive therapies emphasize an emic approach.
b. etic - Incorrect
c. emetic - Incorrect
d. endogenous - Incorrect
(Clinical Psychology)

74

The information that family members continuously exchange and that helps minimize deviation and maintain the family's stability is referred to as ________ ‬feedback.‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. external
b. internal
c. negative
d. positive

c. negative (Correct Answer) Negative feedback is corrective and helps the system return to or maintain its steady state. Thus, a "negative feedback loop" helps minimize deviation and thereby maintains the family's stability. In family systems theory, the information exchange between family members can act as either positive or negative feedback.
d. positive - Incorrect Positive feedback increases deviation from a steady state and, therefore, produces a change in the family’s functioning.
(Clinical Psychology Online Quiz - 4438)

75

A family therapist using the structural approach of Salvador Minuchin would most likely:
a. clarify boundaries between family members in order to reduce enmeshment.
b. work initially with the most differentiated family member.
c. use a multiple-therapist team to prevent any one therapist from becoming "‬triangulated‭" ‬into the family system.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
d. issue specific "‬directives‭" ‬designed to counteract dysfunctional processes.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

a. clarify boundaries between family members in order to reduce enmeshment. CORRECT As its name implies, structural family therapy focuses on altering the family's structure in order to change the behavior patterns of family members. Even if you are unfamiliar with Minuchin, you may have been able to guess that structural therapy would be concerned with boundaries. Structural family therapists view family dysfunction as being related to boundaries that are too diffuse (enmeshed) or too rigid (disengaged).
b. work initially with the most differentiated family member. - Incorrect This is more characteristic of Bowen’s approach to family therapy.
c. use a multiple-therapist team to prevent any one therapist from becoming "‬triangulated‭" ‬into the family system.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ - Incorrect Minuchin's approach does not involve the use of multiple-therapist teams.
d. issue specific‭ "‬directives‭" ‬designed to counteract dysfunctional processes.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ - Incorrect The issuance of directives is more characteristic of strategic family therapy than of structural family therapy.
(Clinical Psychology)

76

Atkinson,‭ ‬Morten,‭ ‬and Sue’s‭ (‬1993‭) ‬Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model proposes that people in which of the following stages begin to question their rejection of all aspects of the dominant culture and absolute loyalty to their own culture?‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. encounter
b. dissonance
c. integrative awareness
d. introspection

d. introspection - CORRECT The Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model distinguishes between five stages: conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, and integrative awareness. During the introspection stage, the individual begins to question the unequivocal position that he/she adopted during the previous resistance-immersion stage with regard to his/he own culture and the dominant culture.
a. encounter - Incorrect The encounter stage is the second stage in Cross’s (1991) Black Racial (Nigrescence) Identity Development Model.
b. dissonance - Incorrect During the dissonance stage, the individual begins to question conformity to the dominant culture.
c. integrative awareness - Incorrect In this stage, the person bases acceptance or rejection of aspects of the majority and minority cultures on an objective evaluation.
(Clinical Psychology)

77

The first stage in Cross’s‭ (‬1991‭) ‬Black Racial Identity Development Model‭ ‬is:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. conformity.
b. incorporation.
c. contact.
d. pre-encounter.

d. pre-encounter. (Correct Answer) Cross’s model is based on the premise that African American identity development is directly linked to racial oppression. During the initial pre-encounter stage, race has low salience. Cross’s Black Racial Identity Development Model distinguishes between five stages: pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, internalization, and internalization-commitment.
(Clinical Psychology)

78

Research on Helms’s White Racial Identity Development Model suggests that a White therapist will usually be most successful when working with a client from an ethnic/racial minority group when the therapist is in which stage?‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. reintegration
b. immersion-emersion
c. autonomy
d. integrative awareness

c. autonomy - CORRECT Perhaps not surprisingly, a White therapist is likely to be most effective when working with a client from an ethnic/racial minority group when the therapist is in the final stage of White identity development – i.e., the autonomy stage. A person in this stage has internalized a positive (nonracist) White identity that includes appreciation of and respect for racial/cultural similarities and differences. Helms’s White Racial Identity Development Model distinguishes between six identity statuses (stages): contact, disintegration, reintegration, pseudo-independence, immersion-emersion, and autonomy.
(Clinical Psychology)

79

In comparing Asian and Asian-American therapy clients to Anglo clients,‭ ‬the experts frequently point out that the former:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. tend to prefer a less directive therapeutic approach.
b. are grounded more in the here-and-now than in the past or the future.
c. respond better when goal-setting is delayed.
d. are likely to express emotional problems as somatic symptoms.

d. are likely to express emotional problems as somatic symptoms. - CORRECT Asians ordinarily view the mind and body as inseparable and, as a result, often express mental health problems as somatic complaints such as headaches, fatigue, or sleep problems. Although it is important not to overgeneralize about members of any particular group, the literature on cross-cultural psychotherapy does provide some general conclusions about clients belonging to different ethnic/cultural groups.
a. tend to prefer a less directive therapeutic approach. - Incorrect This is the opposite of what is true.
b. are grounded more in the here-and-now than in the past or the future. - Incorrect In terms of time perspective, Asians usually place importance on the relationship of the past to the present.
c. respond better when goal-setting is delayed. - Incorrect It is usually best to identify goals early in therapy (even during the first session) when working with Asian clients.
(Clinical Psychology)

80

Smith,‭ ‬Glass,‭ ‬and Miller’s‭ (‬1980‭) ‬meta-analysis of the psychotherapy outcome research found that people receiving therapy are "‬better off" ‬than about _____‬%‭ ‬of people who need treatment but do not receive it.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. 45
b. 55
c. 80
d. 95

c. 80 - CORRECT Smith, Glass, and Miller (1980) report an average effect size of .85 for 475 controlled studies of psychotherapy. This means that the mean outcome score of people who receive treatment is higher than the mean outcome score of about 80% of people who need treatment but do not receive it. Although the results of the meta-analyses of the psychotherapy outcome research vary somewhat, they confirm that the majority of clients receiving therapy benefit from it.
(Clinical Psychology)

81

Asking the “‬miracle question” ‬is an initial intervention in which type of therapy?‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. transtheoretical
b. interpersonal
c. REBT
d. solution-focused

d. solution-focused - CORRECT As its name implies, solution-focused therapy focuses on identifying solutions to problems. The miracle question is one of the techniques used by solution-focused therapists to identify solutions and establish therapy goals. It involves asking the client how the client’s life would be if his/her problems were suddenly resolved. The “miracle question” is used to help clients identify solutions to their problems.
(Clinical Psychology)

82

According to Freud's notion of______‬,‭ ‬dreams and slips of the tongue are meaningful goal-directed phenomena.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. psychic dynamogenesis
b. reciprocal determinism
c. psychic determinism
d. ptyalism

c. psychic determinism - CORRECT According to Freud's doctrine of psychic determinism, behaviors are not the result of free will but, instead, are caused by unconscious phenomena. Freud interpreted dreams, slips of the tongue, etc. as manifestations of unconscious material.
a. psychic dynamogenesis - Incorrect Dynamogenesis is the principle that motor responses are proportional to sensory activities.
b. reciprocal determinism - Incorrect Reciprocal determinism proposes that behavior, person, and situation interact and influence each other.
d. ptyalism - Incorrect Ptyalism refers to the excessive production of saliva, something Pavlov, not Freud, would be interested in.
(Clinical Psychology)

83

The belief that a child's misbehavior has one of four goals — ‬i.e.,‭ ‬attention,‭ ‬revenge,‭ ‬power,‭ ‬or to display inadequacy — ‬is most consistent with:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. Beck’s cognitive-behavioral therapy.
b. Adler’s individual psychology
c. Perls’s Gestalt therapy.
d. Mahler’s object relations theory.

b. Adler’s individual psychology - CORRECT Adler believed that all behaviors are goal-directed and purposeful. Dreikurs, an associate of Adler’s, described the misbehavior of children as attempts to belong, which reflect faulty beliefs about what it takes to belong (e.g., “I belong only when I'm the center of attention”).
(Clinical Psychology)

84

For a Gestalt therapist,‭ ‬a primary goal of treatment is to help the client:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. integrate the present with his/her past and future.
b. integrate the various aspects of the self.
c. develop a‭ “‬success identity.‭”
d. develop a‭ “‬healthy style of life.‭”

b. integrate the various aspects of the self. -
CORRECT A primary goal of gestalt therapy is to integrate all aspects of the self; i.e., one’s feelings, thoughts, and actions. For the exam, you want to know that, in Gestalt therapy, the primary goals are increased awareness and integration of all aspects of the self.
a. integrate the present with his/her past and future. - Incorrect In Gestalt therapy, the focus is on the present. In fact, its founder, Fritz Perls, argued that “nothing exists but the now.”
c. develop a‭ “‬success identity.‭” - Incorrect This is the goal of reality therapy.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
d. develop a‭ “‬healthy style of life.‭” - Incorrect This sounds more like Adlerian therapy.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
(Clinical Psychology)

85

The primary goal of a newly-developed community-based mental health program is to help people recently released from a psychiatric hospital adjust to life in the community.‭ ‬This is an example of:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. primary prevention.
b. secondary prevention.
c. tertiary prevention.
d. crisis intervention.

c. tertiary prevention. - CORRECT Tertiary preventions are designed to reduce the prevalence of mental disorders by reducing their duration or preventing their recurrence. Prevention programs are often described as primary, secondary, or tertiary, depending on their goals.
a. primary prevention. - Incorrect Primary preventions are designed to prevent the development of a physical or mental disorder.
b. secondary prevention. - Incorrect Secondary preventions are designed to reduce the prevalence of mental disorders through early identification and intervention.
d. crisis intervention. - Incorrect Crisis interventions are designed to reduce the negative consequences of crises.
(Clinical Psychology)

86

In client-centered case consultation,‭ ‬the consultant's primary goal is to:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. help the consultee determine how to work more effectively with a particular client.
b. help the consultee identify methods for evaluating his/her own professional services.
c. help a consultee enhance his/her skills and knowledge so that the consultee functions more effectively in the future.
d. work collaboratively with the consultee in delivering the optimal intervention to a client.

a. help the consultee determine how to work more effectively with a particular client. - CORRECT Gerald Caplan (1970) distinguishes between four types of mental health consultation: client-centered case consultation, consultee-centered case consultation, program-centered administrative consultation, and consultee-centered administrative consultation. Client-centered case consultation focuses on a particular client. In this type of consultation, the consultant collects information about the client and makes recommendations to the consultee about the best course of action.
b. help the consultee identify methods for evaluating his/her own professional services. - Incorrect This does not accurately describe the primary goal of client-centered case consultation.
c. help a consultee enhance his/her skills and knowledge so that the consultee functions more effectively in the future. - Incorrect This describes consultee-centered case consultation.
d. work collaboratively with the consultee in delivering the optimal intervention to a client. - Incorrect This describes “collaboration“rather than “consultation. “
(Clinical Psychology)

87

Replacing a “‬failure identity” ‬with a “‬success identity” ‬is a goal of treatment for practitioners of _______ ‬therapy.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. Gestalt
b. reality
c. solution-focused
d. Adlerian

b. reality - CORRECT Glasser, the founder of reality therapy, viewed identity as a basic psychological need and distinguished between success and failure identities. A person develops a success identity when the person fulfills his/her other needs in a responsible way. Of the therapies listed, only one distinguishes between success and failure identities.
(Clinical Psychology)

88

Prochaska and DiClemente’s‭ (‬1982‭) ‬stages of change (‬transtheoretical‭) ‬model predicts that a person in the ________ ‬stage plans to take action ‬within the next six months ‬that will alter his/her problematic behavior.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. action
b. contemplation
c. preparation
d. precontemplation

b. contemplation - (CORRECT) A person in the contemplation stage intends to take action in the next six months. A Prochaska and DiClemente’s stage of change model distinguishes between six stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination.
a. action - Incorrect A person in this stage is currently taking actions to alter his/her behavior.
c. preparation - Incorrect A person in the preparation stage is planning to take action in the near future (usually defined as in the next month).
d. precontemplation - Incorrect A person in this stage is not planning to change in the foreseeable future.
(Clinical Psychology Online Quiz - 4417)

89

The research indicates that which of the following therapist factors has the greatest impact on therapy progress?‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. amount of personal therapy
b. self-esteem
c. emotional detachment
d. empathy

d. empathy - CORRECT Studies have generally confirmed Carl Rogers' assertion that therapist empathy is an important factor in psychotherapy. Although therapist factors have, in general, not been found to be particularly good predictors of therapy outcome, some therapist factors do appear to have an impact on therapy progress.
a. amount of personal therapy - Incorrect No consistent relationship has been found between the therapist's personal therapy and therapy outcome.
b. self-esteem - Incorrect Although "healthier" therapists seem to be better therapists, self-esteem has not been linked to the outcome of therapy.
c. emotional detachment - Incorrect Emotional detachment has not been found to be a good predictor of favorable therapy outcome.
(Clinical Psychology)

90

The rooting reflex occurs when:
a. The newborn’s cheek is touched
b. The newborn’s foot is tickled.
c. The newborn hears his/her caregiver’s voice.
d. The newborn hears an unexpected loud noise.

The rooting reflex occurs when:
a. The newborn’s cheek is touched - CORRECT Reflexes are unlearned responses to particular stimuli in the environment. The rooting reflex occurs when the baby turns his/her head in the direction of a touch or stroke on his/her cheek.
b. The newborn’s foot is tickled. (Incorrect)
This describes the Babinski reflex.
c. The newborn hears his/her caregiver’s voice. (Incorrect) This does not describe the rooting reflex.
d. The newborn hears an unexpected loud noise. (Incorrect, My Selection) This describes the Moro (startle) reflex.
(Lifespan Development)