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301

On the basis of the results of the t-test a psychologist uses to analyze the data she collects,‭ ‬the psychologist concludes that her results are‭ "‬significant at the‭ ‬.01‭ ‬level.‭" ‬This means that:
A. there is a‭ ‬1%‭ ‬chance that she will incorrectly reject the null hypothesis.
B. there is a‭ ‬1%‭ ‬chance that she will incorrectly retain the null hypothesis.
C. there is a‭ ‬99%‭ ‬chance that she will incorrectly reject the null hypothesis.
D. there is a‭ ‬99%‭ ‬chance that she will incorrectly retain the null hypothesis.

A. there is a‭ ‬1%‭ ‬chance that she will incorrectly reject the null hypothesis - CORRECT Significance at the .01 level means that there is a 1% chance that the obtained value (e.g., the mean or the difference between means) could have occurred by chance alone given the value specified in the null hypothesis. In other words, there is a 1% probability that the null hypothesis will be incorrectly rejected (that a Type I error will be made). The level of significance (alpha) determines the location of the boundary between the regions of likely and unlikely values in the sampling distribution. When results are significant at the chosen level of significance, this means that the results are in the region of unlikely values and that the null hypothesis should be rejected.
B. there is a‭ ‬1%‭ ‬chance that she will incorrectly retain the null hypothesis - Incorrect The probability of incorrectly retaining the null hypothesis (i.e., of retaining a false null hypothesis) is equal to beta, not alpha.
C. there is a‭ ‬99%‭ ‬chance that she will incorrectly reject the null hypothesis - Incorrect See explanation for response a.
D. there is a‭ ‬99%‭ ‬chance that she will incorrectly retain the null hypothesis - Incorrect Because the results are statistically significant, the psychologist will reject (not retain) the null hypothesis.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4846)

302

When the relationship between the predictor‭ (‬the X variable‭) ‬and the criterion‭ (‬the Y variable‭) ‬is curvilinear and both variables are measured on an interval or ratio scale,‭ ‬the appropriate correlation coefficient is:
A. phi.
B. tau.
C. rho.
D. eta.

D. eta - CORRECT Eta is used to measure the relationship between two continuous (interval or ratio) variables when their relationship is nonlinear. The choice of a correlation coefficient is based on several factors including the scale of measurement of the variables and the shape of the relationship between them (linear vs. non-linear).
A. phi - Incorrect The phi coefficient is appropriate when both variables are true (natural) dichotomies.
B. tau - Incorrect Kendall’s tau is appropriate when both variables are measured on an ordinal scale.
C. rho - Incorrect Rho (also known as the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient) is used when both variables are measured as ranks.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4844)

303

When using multiple regression,‭ ‬multicollinearity occurs when:
A. the predictors are highly correlated with one another.
B. the criterion measures are highly correlated with one another.
C. there is a low correlation between the predictors and the criterion.
D. there is a high‭ (‬significant‭) ‬correlation between the predictors and the criterion.

A. the predictors are highly correlated with one another - CORRECT The term multicollinearity is used to describe high correlations between predictors (X variables). When choosing predictors for a multiple regression equation, the optimal condition is for each predictor to explain unique variability in the criterion. When predictors are correlated, this condition is violated.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4871)

304

The denominator term in the F-ratio is‭ ‬reduced in magnitude by:
A. decreasing within-group variability.
B. increasing within-group variability.
C. increasing between-group variability and decreasing within-group variability.
D. decreasing between-group variability and increasing within-group variability

A. decreasing within-group variability - CORRECT Within-group variability is a measure of error; and decreasing within-group variability decreases error and the magnitude of the denominator of the F-ratio. The mean square within (MSW) is the denominator of the F-ratio and, as its name implies, is a measure of within-group variability.
B. increasing within-group variability - Incorrect This would increase the size of the denominator of the F-ratio.
C. increasing between-group variability and decreasing within-group variability - Incorrect MSW is a measure of within-group variability and isn't affected by between-group variability.
D. decreasing between-group variability and increasing within-group variability - Incorrect
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4886)

305

An organizational psychologist has been hired by a manufacturing company to develop a selection battery that will help the company answer the following question:‭ "‬What group‭ (‬assembly-line workers or clerical workers‭) ‬does the job applicant most closely resemble‭?" ‬Which of the following multivariate techniques would be useful for this purpose‭?
A. discriminant analysis
B. multiple regression
C. factor analysis
D. path analysis

A. discriminant analysis - CORRECT A discriminant analysis (also known as discriminant function analysis) involves using scores on two or more predictors to predict an individual's membership in a criterion group – i.e., it is used when the criterion is measured on a nominal scale. There are several methods for combining predictor scores to estimate performance or status on a criterion. When the criterion (Y variable) is group membership, discriminant analysis is an appropriate method.
B. multiple regression - Incorrect Multiple regression is used to combine scores on several predictors to predict or estimate performance or status on a criterion that is measured on an interval or ratio scale.
C. factor analysis - Incorrect Factor analysis is used to determine the underlying factors (attributes) that are assessed by set of measures.
D. path analysis - Incorrect Path analysis is used to test a model of the causal links among a set of variables.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4874)

306

Autocorrelation is most likely to be a problem when using which of the following research designs‭?
A. time-series
B. factorial
C. between groups
D. Solomon four-group

A. time-series - CORRECT Of the research designs listed in the answers, repeated measurement of the dependent variable is characteristic only of the time series design, which is a type of repeated measures (within subjects) design. Autocorrelation refers to the correlation between measurements of the dependent variable when it is repeatedly administered to the same participants. Autocorrelation is a problem in repeated measures designs because it can artificially inflate the value of the inferential statistic and thereby increase the probability of making a Type I error.
B. factorial - Incorrect Factorial designs include two or more independent variables and do not necessarily involve repeated measurements of the dependent variable.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4866)

307

LISREL‭ (‬linear structural relations analysis‭) ‬would be the appropriate method of analysis if your causal model:
A. includes measured‭ (‬observed‭) ‬attributes only.
B. includes latent traits only.
C. includes both measured‭ (‬observed‭) ‬attributes and latent traits.
D. includes both correlated and uncorrelated attributes.

C. includes both measured‭ (‬observed‭) ‬attributes and latent traits. - CORRECT In contrast to path analysis models, which predict the causal relationships among measured attributes only, LISREL models incorporate both measured attributes and latent traits. LISREL, a structural equation (causal) modeling technique, is used to test causal hypotheses about relationships among measured variables and the latent traits those variables are believed to measure.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4882)

308

In a cross-sectional study designed to assess the effects of age on reaction time,‭ ‬you have adults belonging to different age groups respond to visual stimuli on a computer screen.‭ ‬A colleague suggests that the results of your study might be confounded by the fact that older participants may have less experience using a computer than do younger participants.‭ ‬This potential source of error is best described as a:
A. Rosenthal effect.
B. Hawthorne effect.
C. carryover effect.
D. cohort effect.

D. cohort effect - CORRECT “Cohort effect” refers to the confounding effects of intergenerational differences in experience or other characteristics. Cohort effects can be a source of error in cross-sectional studies (such as the study described in this question). Your colleague is predicting that your research findings will be confounded by differences in computer experience that are related to differences in age. This is often a problem in cross-sectional research.
A. Rosenthal effect - Incorrect The Rosenthal effect is another name for the self-fulfilling prophecy effect and is not relevant to this situation.
B. Hawthorne effect - Incorrect The Hawthorne effect refers to the tendency of research participants to act in atypical ways because they are participating in a research study (e.g., because of the novelty of the situation or the special attention they are receiving).
C. carryover effect - Incorrect A carryover effect is a potential problem in within-subjects research. It occurs when exposure to one level of an independent variable impacts how participants respond to another level of the independent variable.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4868)

309

An examinee who makes a number of confabulatory responses on the Rorschach has overgeneralized from a part of the inkblot to the whole. Such responses suggest which of the following?
A. a need for immediate gratification
B. high intelligence and creativity
C. a high degree of defensiveness or denial
D. brain damage, intellectual disability, or emotional disturbance

D. brain damage, intellectual disability, or emotional disturbance - As noted in the question, an examinee makes a confabulatory response (DW) when he/she overgeneralizes from a part of the inkblot to the whole inkblot -- e.g., "It looks like my father because of those eyes. My father had those same penetrating eyes." In this situation, the examinee has overgeneralized a detail of the inkblot ("penetrating eyes") so that the entire inkblot reminds him of his father.
(Psych Assessment)

310

A psychologist obtains a statistically significant F-ratio for the interaction between two independent variables. This means that:
A. the effects of one variable are significant across all levels of the second variable.
B. the effects of one variable are contingent on the level of the second variable.
C. the main effects of both variables are statistically significant.
D. the two variables are statistically significant only when considered jointly.

B. the effects of one variable are contingent on the level of the second variable - Correct - This is another way of saying that the effects of one variable are different at different levels of another variable, which is the definition of an interaction.
(Stats & Res Design)