Epidemiologic Risk Measures Flashcards Preview

Research > Epidemiologic Risk Measures > Flashcards

Flashcards in Epidemiologic Risk Measures Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1

Epidemiology

study of distribution and determinants of disease, injury or dysfunction

2

Public health problems or events Epidemiologists investigate

Environmental exposures
Infectious diseases
Injuries
Non-infectious diseases
Natural disasters
Terrorism

3

Descriptive epidemiologic study

Used when little is known about occurrence or determinant of health conditions

presented as case reports, correlational studies, or survey studies

4

Descriptive epidemiologic studies purposed to answer:

who experiences the disorder?

where is frequency highest or lowest?

When does the disorder occur most or least frequently?

Prevalence / Incidence

5

Prevalence

(# existing cases of a disease at a given point in time) / (total population at risk)

estimate of probability that an individual will have a particular disorder at that time

6

Point Prevalence

reflects cross sectional status of the population

7

Period prevalence

combines existing cases with new cases during the period of ONE YEAR

8

Incidence

Proportion reflecting # of new cases of a disorder relative to total population at a given time

estimate of risk of developing disease at that time

9

Cumulative Incidence

(# new cases at period of time) / (total population at risk)

10

Incidence Rate

(# new cases at period of time) / (total person - time)

11

considered a more efficient measure to allow inclusion of all subjects

Incidence rate

12

only accounts for subjects available for entire study period

Cumulative Incidence

13

Exploratory epidemiologic study

assess relationship between exposure and disease status

establishes if association exists and its strength

14

Exploratory epidemiologic studies presented as:

case control studies
cohort studies

15

Relative risk

incidence of disease amongst exposed
/
incidence of disease among unexposed

16

RR = 1

indicates exposure presents no excess risk

17

RR > 1

indicates exposure presents increased risk

18

RR < 1

indicates exposure presents decreased risk

19

Odds Ratio

estimate of RR when RR isn't appropriate

Used in case control study