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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (659)
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181

The effect of growth hormone on lipid metabolism

  • Increases catabolic processes:
    • FFA + plasma triglyceride increase
    • Fatty deposits are mobilised
  • Glucose oxidation decreases
  • Gluconeogenesis increases
  • Increased plasma acetoacetic acid levels
  • Increased plasma beta-OH-butyrate levels

182

The effect of growth hormone on carbohydrate metabolism

  • Antiinsuline effects:
    • Decrease insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipose
  • Diabetogenic effects:
    • Increase plasma glucose level
      • Glucogenesis
      • Glucagon production
  • Houssay's experiment

183

Houssay's experiment

Adenohypophysectomy improved the status of a diabetic dog

184

GH stimulates...in the liver

  • Activation of thyroid hormones
  • Synthesis of somatomedins

185

Function of somatomedins

  • Influence bone, cartilage and connective tissue
  • Circulate in plasma, bound by carrier proteins

186

Somatomedins have a similar structure to...

Insulin

They are therefore known as IGFs (Insulin-like growth factors)

They cannot exert any effect on insulin receptors

187

Somatomedins are also known as...

Sulphating factors

188

IGF =

Somatomedins (Sm)

189

IGF-I

Sm-C

190

IGF-II =

MSA

Multiplication stimulating activity

191

Give the effects of IGF-I

Stimulation of:

  • Chondrocyte sulphate intake
  • Chondrocyte + osteoblast bone forming activity
  • Longitudinal bone growth
  • Transversal + periosteal bone growth
  • Acromegaly

192

Rat tibia test

  • A biological hormone identification method
  • Rat epiphysis' do not close: always ready to grow
  1. Unknown substance is administered
  2. The thickness of the tibial disk is compared with its previous normal size

193

Describe the regulation of GH secretion

  • Plasma levels of:
    • Glucose
    • Arginine
    • Thyroid hormone
    • Hypothalamic factors

194

Peripheral feedback of GH regulation consists of which compounds?

  • Plasma metabolites
  • IGF
  • IGF-BP (Binding protien)

195

Title the figure

Regulation of GH secretion

196

Regulators of GH secretion

  • Plasma glucose + amino acid levels
  • Sex
  • Stress
  • Age

197

Regulators of GH secretion

Neurosecretion:

  • GH-RH
  • GH-IH

198

Regulators of GH secretion

Trop. hormone:

  • GH

199

Regulators of GH secretion

  • Metabolites of peripheral tissues + IGF levels
  • GH receptors
  • IGF binding proteins

200

Practical approaches of GH

  • Increase productivity
    • Milk
  • Genetic engineering
    • rpGH = recombinant-porcine growth hormone

201

Show the GH effects in cow (Graph)

202

Biochemical function of ACTH

In the adrenal fasciculate + reticular zones:

  1. ACTH increases cAMP pathway
  2. Stimulating glucocorticoid synthesis

203

What is the primary regulator of aldosterone?

Plasma [K+]

Not ACTH

204

Many hormones produced in the pituitary gland are synthesised from a common precursor hormone called...

PRE-POMC

(PRE-PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN)

The name is derived from the most important hormones derived from it

 

205

List the hormones derived from Pre-POMC

  • Opioid peptides
  • MSH
  • ACTH

206

Hormones derived from Pre-POMC are involved in which processes?

Adaptive processes of the body

207

ACTH is released in the incidence of...

Stress:

  • Mobilises energy reserves
  • Decreases sensation of pain

208

Which substance stimulates all the shown cleaving processes?

Where is this substance produced?

CRF (Corticotropin-releasing factor)

Produced in the hypothalamus

209

LPH =

Lipotropic hormone

210

CLIP = 

Corticotropin like intermediate peptide