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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (659)
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601

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea

602

  • Na+ loss
  • K+ loss

603

  • Fall of blood pressure
  • RBF decrease
  • Anuria (Failure of urine production)
  • Coma

604

Exitus

605

Parallel to metabolic acidosis, what else occurs?

Protein degredation

606

List the types of diabetes

  • Type-1 (Human)
  • Type-2 (Human)
  • Type-3 (Canine)

 

607

Type-1 diabetes

  • Appears in juvenile age
  • Effects of the disease are through insulin deficiency
  • Excess of glucagon
  • Rapid
  • Hereditary
  • Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

608

IDDB

  • Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
  • Caused by insufficient insulin production

609

Type-II diabetes

  • Adults/elderly
  • The insufficient response of B-cells to carbohydrates
  • Though that GLUT2 isn't functioning properly
  • Insulin production still regulated
  • Can be normalised with a controlled diet
  • Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)

610

Type-III diabetes

  • Adults, 5-15 years
  • Insulin-sensitive
  • Late-onset, nutritive

611

What are autacoids?

  • Biological factors which act as local hormones
  • Brief duration
  • Act near the site of synthesis

612

What are the two groups of Autacoid?

  • Peptides
  • Eicosanoids (Fatty acid-like substances)

613

Where are eicosanoids produced?

All cells in the body

614

Characteristics of Eicosanoids

  • 20-carbon fatty acids
  • The product of enzymatic reactions of phospholipids
  • Mediated by G-protein → Activating PLA2 enzyme

615

Title the figure

Eicosanoid synthesis

616

MPL stands for...

Membrane phospholipids

617

Phospholipase-A2

618

Lipoxygenase

619

List the effects of eicosanoids of veterinary importance

  • Increase inflammation
  • Insulin release
  • Bone resorption
  • Reproduction
  • Thrombocyte aggregation
  • Renal effects

620

Effect of eicosanoids on inflammation

  • Initiate inflammation
  • Example: Through PMN cells
  • Cause:
    • Vasodilation
    • Chemotaxis
    • IL-1 fever

621

Effect of eicosanoids on insulin release

  • HPETE stimulates PGE2 pathway
  • Inhibition of insulin release

622

Effect of eicosanoids on​ bone resorption

  • PGE2 produced by osteoblast cellular membrane
  • Parathyroid hormone-like effect on Ca2+ mobilisation
  • Allows Ca2+ entry into the plasma

623

Effect of eicosanoids on reproduction

  • In large animals
  • PGF2-alpha production of the uterus
  • The twisted part of a. ovarica + v. uterina allows diffusion of PGF2-alpha
  • Leutolytic effect

624

Effect of eicosanoids on thrombocyte aggregation

  • Endothelial cells release PGI continuously
  • This binds to membrane receptors of platelets
  • cAMP increase in platelets
  • Inhibited activity of PLA2
  • Platelets don't aggregate

During injury

  • This mechanism is stopped
  • TXA2 synthesis begins → Aggregation + thrombus

625

Effect of eicosanoids on the kidney

  • Prostacyclin synthesis in renal tubule enhances renin secretion
  • Increase RPF
  • Antagonises effect of ADH

626

Regulation of eicosanoid production

  • Corticosteroids + mepacrine inhibit eicosanoid synthesis
  • Salicylic acid, indomethacin and ibuprofen inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme
  • Benzydamine and imidazole inhibit thromboxane synthase enzyme
    • Normal production of prostaglandins
    • Decreased synthesis of thromboxane

627

Peptide autacoids are part of which system?

Diffuse Neuro-endocrine system (DNES)

628

  • K + PNE Cells
  • BLP, SN, Enkephalin

629

  • C-cell
  • CT

630

  • G-cell + D-cell
  • Gastrin, enkephalin