Endocrine - Pathology (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine - Pathology (Part 2) Deck (136)
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1

What is the risk of the nodules in a toxic multinodular goiter becoming malignant?

None; the nodules in a toxic multinodular goiter are not malignant

2

What mutation is responsible for the activity of the follicles in a toxic multinodular goiter?

A mutation in the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor makes these cells function independently of thyroid-stimulating hormone

3

What is the Jod-Basedow phenomenon?

Thyrotoxicosis when a patient with endemic goiter moves to an iodine-replete area

4

Which thyroid cancer is the most common?

Papillary carcinoma

5

Which thyroid cancer has the best prognosis?

Papillary carcinoma

6

What are the histological findings of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid?

Psammoma bodies, "ground-glass" nuclei (Orphan Annie), nuclear grooves

7

Place the following thyroid cancers in order from best to worst prognosis: follicular, undifferentiated/anaplastic, and papillary.

Papillary, follicular, and undifferentiated/anaplastic

8

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid originates from which cells?

Parafollicular C cells

9

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid produces what substance?

Calcitonin

10

What are the histological findings of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid?

Sheets of cells in amyloid stroma

11

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is associated with what two genetic syndromes?

Multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B

12

Undifferentiated/anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid is most commonly found in what population?

Older patients

13

What type of cancer is associated with Hashimotos thyroiditis?

Lymphoma of the thyroid

14

What risk factor is associated with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid?

Childhood irradiation

15

What mnemonic illustrates the causes of hypercalcemia?

Calcium ingestion, Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Iatrogenic (thiazides), Multiple myeloma, Pagets disease, Addisons disease, Neoplasms, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, Excess vitamin D, Excess vitamin A, Sarcoidosis (remember: CHIMPANZEES)

16

What is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism?

A parathyroid adenoma

17

What are the relative levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase in primary hyperparathyroidism?

Increased parathyroid hormone, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase and decreased phosphate

18

What is the classic triad of symptoms in primary hyperparathyroidism?

When present, symptoms include weakness, constipation, and renal stones (remember: stones, bones, and groans)

19

What is the mechanism by which a patient develops secondary hyperparathyroidism?

Decreased calcium absorption from the gut and increased levels of phosphate lead to secondary hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland

20

What is the most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism?

Chronic renal disease

21

What are the relative levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase in secondary hyperparathyroidism?

Increased parathyroid hormone, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase, and decreased serum calcium

22

How does chronic renal disease contribute to secondary hyperparathyroidism?

Renal failure leads to decreased activation of vitamin D which, in turn, leads to decreased absorption of calcium from the gut

23

What is the bone pathology associated with osteitis fibrosa cystica?

Cystic bone spaces filled with brown fibrous tissue causing pain; due to elevated levels of parathyroid hormone

24

What bone pathology might you see in a dialysis patient?

Renal osteodystrophy, caused by secondarily elevated parathyroid hormone levels

25

What neuromuscular finding is common among patients with hypoparathyroidism?

Tetany, secondary to hypocalcemia

26

Following thyroid surgery, a patient presents with muscle spasms; what electrolyte abnormality is likely present?

Hypoparathyroidism and resultant hypocalcemia

27

List three causes of hypoparathyroidism.

Accidental surgical excision (thyroid surgery), autoimmune destruction and DiGeorges syndrome

28

Upon tapping the facial nerve, a patient has twitching in the ipisilateral facial muscles; what is the sign?

Chvosteks sign, indicating hypocalcemia

29

After occluding the brachial artery with a blood pressure cuff, your patient has spasms in the wrist; what is the name of the sign?

Trousseaus sign, indicating hypocalcemia

30

What is the name of the condition in which the kidneys are unresponsive to parathyroid hormone?

Pseudohypoparathyroidism, a genetic condition