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Flashcards in Endocrine - Anatomy Deck (42)
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1

A 19-year-old with type 1 diabetes comes in for a routine check-up. Where in the islets of Langerhans is the root of her condition?

(A) the β cells, which should be centrally located; patients with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin

2

You realize that you have not eaten in six hours. In the image, what cell in the islets of Langerhans is working overtime?

(B) the α cell, which should be peripherally located; it produces glucagon because of your fasting state

3

The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is regulated by _____ and secretes _____.

Renin-angiotensin; aldosterone

4

The zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland is regulated by _____ and secretes _____.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone and hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone; cortisol and sex hormones

5

The zona reticularis of the adrenal gland is regulated by _____ and secretes _____.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone and hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone; sex hormones (eg, androgens)

6

The adrenal medulla is primarily regulated by (parasympathetic/sympathetic) fibers and is composed of (chromaffin/chromophobe) cells.

Sympathetic; chromaffin

7

The most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in adults is _____, whereas in children it is _____.

Pheochromocytoma; neuroblastoma

8

What are the effects of pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas on blood pressure?

Pheochromocytomas cause episodic hypertension whereas neuroblastomas do not

9

What mnemonic helps you remember the three layers of the adrenal cortex and their corresponding products?

Zona Glomerulosa (salt), Zona Fasciculata (glucocorticoids), Zona Reticularis (sex hormones): GFR corresponds to salt, sugar, and sex ("the deeper you go, the sweeter it gets")

10

Trace the blood flow from the left adrenal gland to the inferior vena cava.

Left adrenal gland to the left adrenal vein to the left renal vein to the inferior vena cava

11

Trace blood flow from the right adrenal gland to the inferior vena cava.

Right adrenal gland to the right adrenal vein to the inferior vena cava

12

Which gonadal vein drains directly into the inferior vena cava: the right or the left?

Right gonadal vein

13

Embryologically, the posterior pituitary is derived from the _____, whereas the anterior pituitary is derived from the _____.

Neuroectoderm; oral ectoderm

14

What does the posterior pituitary gland secrete?

Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) and oxytocin

15

Where are the secretory products of the posterior pituitary formed?

In the hypothalamus

16

What are the secretory products of the anterior pituitary?

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Prolactin, growth hormone (GH), and melanotropin (remember: FLAT PiG)< body>

17

Which pituitary hormones have a common alpha subunit?

Thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin

18

What is the clinical significance of the shared subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin?

At high enough concentrations, a given hormone can partially activate the receptor of another hormone with the same a subunit

19

What is the significance of the subunit of pituitary hormones?

It determines the hormone specificity of thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin

20

Which hormones are secreted from acidophilic cells?

Growth hormone, prolactin

21

Which hormones are secreted from basophilic cells?

Basophils secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (remember: B-FLAT)

22

What cell types are found in the islets of Langerhans?

, , and δ endocrine cells

23

In the islets of Langerhans,  α- endocrine cells are located _____ and secrete _____.

Peripherally; glucagon

24

In the islets of Langerhans, β- endocrine cells are located _____ and secrete _____.

Centrally; insulin (remember: INSide INSulin)

25

In the islets of Langerhans, δ endocrine cells are located _____ and secrete _____.

Throughout; somatostatin

26

Where are islets of Langerhans most numerous?

In the tail of the pancreas

27

From what embryonic structures do the islets of Langerhans arise?

Pancreatic buds

28

-Cells in the pancreas make insulin in response to what cellular process?

Increased glucose metabolism increases adenosine triphosphate, which closes potassium channels and depolarizes the cell

29

What effect would a -cell potassium channel blocker have on the release of insulin?

Increased insulin release, because potassium channel closure depolarizes the β-cell

30

Insulin release from -cells is increased by (opening/closing) potassium channels and (opening/closing) calcium channels.

Closing; opening