Electrolytes PP 41 On Flashcards Preview

Patho Exam 3 > Electrolytes PP 41 On > Flashcards

Flashcards in Electrolytes PP 41 On Deck (70)
Loading flashcards...
1

Measures all of the calcium (bound plus unbound)

Total Serum Calcium

2

Normal range in adults = 9 to 11 mg/dl or 4.5 to 5.5 mEq/L (may vary slightly with different laboratories)

Total Serum Calcium

3

Unless a calcium value specifies ionized calcium, it is _____ calcium

total

4

The normal range in adults = 4 to 5 mg/dl, about half of the total calcium (varies with different laboratories)

Ionized Calcium

5

Clinically significant calcium imbalances are caused by alterations in the plasma concentration of _________

unbound ionized calcium

6

Serum calcium concentration drops below the lower limit of normal

Hypocalcemia

7

Fraction of unbound ionized calcium in the blood decreases by more calcium binding to ____ proteins or other organic ions in _____.

plasma; hypocalcemia

8

Decreased calcium intake or absorption

hypocalcemia

9

Poor diet; lack of Vitamin D; excessive phytates or oxalates

hypocalcemia

10

Decreased physiologic availability of calcium and increased calcium excretion can cause ______

hypocalcemia

11

Excessive phosphate, hypoparathyroidism can cause ________

hypocalcemia

12

Steatorrhea and pancreatitis associated with _____

hypocalcemia

13

Decreases the threshold potential, causing hyperexcitability of neuromuscular cells

hypocalcemia

14

Positive Trousseau sign
Positive Chvostek sign•Not reliable in infants
symptoms of _____

hypocalcemia

15

Paresthesias
Muscle twitching and cramping
Hyperactive reflexes
symptoms of _____

hypocalcemia

16

Carpal spasm and Pedal spasm symptoms of ______

hypocalcemia

17

Tetany
Laryngospasm
Seizures
Cardiac dysrhythmias•Action potentials are generated more easily
symptoms of ________

hypocalcemia

18

Occurs when the serum calcium concentration rises above the upper limit of normal
Indicates an elevation of the calcium concentration of the extracellular fluid

Hypercalcemia

19

Increased calcium intake or absorptionMilk-alkali syndrome, vitamin D overdose (includes shark cartilage supplements)

Hypercalcemia

20

Shift of calcium from bone to extracellular fluid
-Hyperparathyroidism, immobilization, bone tumors

Hypercalcemia

21

Decreased calcium excretion results in ______, Can happen after taking _____ diuretics

Hypercalcemia; thiazide

22

Causes decreased neuromuscular excitability caused by elevation of the threshold potential of excitable cells

Hypercalcemia

23

Muscle weakness
Diminished reflexes
Cardiac dysrhythmias
symptoms of ______

Hypercalcemia

24

Anorexia, nausea, emesis
Fatigue
symptoms of _____

Hypercalcemia

25

Polyuria
Constipation
Headache, confusion, lethargy, personality change
symptoms of ______

Hypercalcemia

26

Renal calculi
Pathological fractures
symptoms of ______

Hypercalcemia

27

Normal = 1.5 to 2.5 mEqL (depending on lab)

Plasma Magnesium

28

Magnesium ions present in bound and unbound ionized forms

Plasma Magnesium

29

Serum magnesium concentration decreases below the lower limit of normal (____ mEq/L) _______

1.5; Hypomagnesemia

30

Decreased magnesium intake or absorption: chronic alcoholism, malnutrition, ileal resection

Hypomagnesemia