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Flashcards in Electrolytes PP 1-40 Deck (76)
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1

A serum sodium concentration below the lower limit of normal

Hyponatremia

2

When present the extracellular fluid contains relatively too much water for the amount of sodium ions present

Extracellular fluid is more dilute than normal

Hyponatremia

3

Etiology factors of _______
Factors that produce a relative excess of water in proportion to salt in the extracellular fluid
Cells swell

Hyponatremia

4

Also called:
Hypotonic syndrome
Hypo-osmolality
Water intoxication

Hyponatremia

5

2 primary causes of hyponatremia:
A gain of relatively more ____than salt, manifested by prolonged or excess release of ____
•Water intake that exceeds normal limit-a loss of relatively more ____than water

water; ADH; salt

6

Malaise and Anorexia are examples of _____ central nervous system dysfunction in _____

mild; hyponatremia

7

Nausea
Vomiting
Headache
examples of ______ central nervous system dysfunction in ________

mild; hyponatremia

8

Confusion
Lethargy
Seizures
examples of _______ central nervous system dysfunction in ______

severe; hyponatremia

9

Coma
Fatal cerebral herniation
examples of _______ central nervous system dysfunction in _____

severe; hyponatremia

10

Serum sodium concentration above upper limit of normal

Extracellular fluid contains relatively too little water for the amount of sodium ions present; it is too concentrated

Cells shrivel

Hypernatremia

11

Also called:
Water deficit
Hypertonic syndrome
Hyperosmolality

Hypernatremia

12

Gain of more salt than water
Loss of more water than salt

Hypernatremia

13

ThirstOliguriaConfusionLethargy are _______ manifestations of _______

mild; hypernatremia

14

SeizuresComaDeath are ______ manifestations of ______

severe; hypernatremia

15

Combination of:
Extracellular volume deficit
Hypernatremia
Too small a volume of fluid in the extracellular compartment and too-concentrated body fluids

Clinical Dehydration

16

Vomiting
Diarrhea
Knowledge deficit about salt and fluid replacement
symptoms of ______-

clinical dehydration

17

_____ blood pressure decrease with concurrent increased heart rate symptoms of _____

Postural; dehydration

18

Lightheadedness, dizziness, or _____ on standing symptoms of ______

syncope; dehydration

19

______neck veins when supine or neck veins that _____during inspiration (older children and adults) symptoms of _____

Flat; collapse; dehydration

20

Sunken _____ (infants) symptom of ____

fontanel; dehydration

21

Rapid, thready pulse
Sudden weight loss
symptoms of ______

dehydration

22

Decreased skin turgor
Dryness of oral mucous membranes
symptoms of _____-

dehydration

23

Hard stools
Soft, sunken eyeballs
symptoms of ______

dehydration

24

Longitudinal furrows in the tongue symptoms of _____

dehydration

25

Thirst
Increased serum sodium concentration
Confusion, lethargy
symptoms of _______

dehydration

26

Coma
Hypovolemic shock
Oliguria
symptoms of ______

dehydration

27

Excess fluid in interstitial compartment_______
-May be a manifestation of excess extracellular fluid volume
-Increased capillary ______pressure: too much volume; from inflammation
-Increased interstitial fluid _____ pressure: inflammation causes protein to leak out from vascular permeability

edema; hydrostatic; osmotic

28

Excess fluid in interstitial compartment

edema

29

Blockage of lymphatic drainage: lymphedema; frequently localized

edema

30

Decreased capillary ______ pressure: _____ proteins decreased; extensive edema

osmotic; plasma