Flashcards in Eggs and Egg products Deck (31)
What are the various types of farms used for egg production?
Free range - free open land
free run - birds run free within an enclosed space - they have to potential to hurt each other
battery cage systems - usually 6 chickens per cage
Hens will typically produce ____ eggs per year
What does the composition of an egg promote? (inner contents)
Contents - water, protein, fat, carbs --> this combination promotes bacterial growth
luckily, it is protected by the cell membrane, shell, and cuticle
Egg products include...?
liquid, dried, or frozen eggs
Yolks, whites, whole egg
Mixtures containing eggs
What are the 4 steps in egg processing?
1. Collect eggs from hens
3.Sort edible from inedible eggs (optional - grade and size eggs)
4. Store and transport eggs
What can happen if washing is done incorrectly and the cuticle is removed?
Introduction of bacteria
What gross features will make an egg considered inedible?
abnormal findings upon candling
T/F: Eggs everywhere are to be stored in a refrigerated section
this is decided per country
*in the US - all eggs for retail are refrigerated
benefits: cool temps prevent embyo developement, slows spoilage, slows age related changes in albumin
How long do eggs last if kept at room temp? and if they are refrigerated?
Room temp - 2-3 weeks
Refrigerated - 4-5 weeks
What are the physical barriers eggs have to prevent bacterial entry? What are other non physical barries?
Physical: eggshell, cuticle, and shell membranes
Antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme in albumin, IgA and IgM in albumin and IgG in yolk)
Interior pH - newly laid egg = 7.6 but can increased to 9.7 during storage
What are the regulations of the 1070 Egg Product Inspection Act?
*mandatory inspection of eggs and egg products for safety and adulteration
*Mandatory pasteurization of egg products
What entity is responsible for the safety of shell eggs produced in the US?
What entity is responsible for the safety of egg products and imported shell eggs?
What are exemptions to the EPIA?
Eggs from small farms (less than 3000 hens)
Farmer selling direct to consumer for personal use
What bacteria is most likely present in an egg with very green colored whites?
what constitutes as an adulterated egg?
*Containing or contaminated with any unsafe pesticide, food additive, or dye
*prepared under unsanitary conditions
*Has been incubated
*Damaged (and concealed or misrepresented)
*If it has been modified, substituted, or replaced with anything to "make it appear better or of greater value than it is"
What is the pasteurization process of eggs?
performed at 140F/60C for 3.5 mins
(higher temps are required for separated yolks and for products with added salt/sugar)
*Optional - USDA approved equipment can pasteurize eggs while still in the shell
The EPIA only mandates that eggs must be _____ and not unhealthy
quality assurance programs are optional
Who sets standards for shell eggs quality in the US?
When selling eggs by different size groups, are all eggs weighed individually to be labeled as a certain size?
Sizes are defined as the minimum net weight of a dozen eggs
Egg grading is based upon the quality of which egg components?
Are eggs graded individually or as lots?
Grades are AA, A, and B
Who performs egg grading?
USDA's agricultural marketing service and state agencies
What bacteria is the most common cause of egg related outbreaks?
Salmonella enterica --> enteritidis
*other salmonella spp can cause illness as well
Where did the largest egg related outbreaks occur in the US?
How does an egg get infected with salmonella?
Salmonella infects the ovaries of healthy-appearing hens --> causes egg associated salmonellosis
T/F: Eggs infected with salmonella, if refrigerated, will not grow anymore bacteria - therefore they are not infectious
It is true that the low temp will stop bacterial growth - but it will not kill the bacterial already present --> still infectious
*humans get sick from consuming raw or under cooked eggs
Who are in the high risk population for salmonellosis?
How long is the incubation period of salmonellosis? What symptoms are seen in infected people and how long do they last?
Incubation = 12-72 hours
Symptoms lase 4-7 days:
Dhr, vomiting, abdominal pain, chills, fever, headache
*bacterial septicemia is a possible complication