Ecosystems of the Planet - Congo Basin CS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ecosystems of the Planet - Congo Basin CS Deck (18)
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1

Where is the Congo Basin Located?

Spans across six countries. Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, DRC, CAR Gabon, Republic of Congo 

2

What size is Congo Basin Rainforest?

500 million acres

3

What percent of the world's remaining rainfrorest does it make up?

18%

4

How many people live in the Congo Basin?

75 million 

5

Who are the Hunter-gatherer people?

Ba'ka people 

6

What percentage of plants are unique to the region? 

30%

7

Number of plant species

10,000

8

How many species of animals?

400 species of mammals, 1,000 species of birds and 700 species of fish 

9

Endangered Animals 

Forest elephants, chimpanzees, bonobos, and lowland and mountain gorillas

10

Examples of Interdependency in the Congo basin rainforest

  • Strangler Figs:Seeds deposited by mammals/birds and needs trees to grow around, provides niche and food source to invertebrates, rodents, bats, reptiles, amphibians, and birds, provides fig fruits for Bonobo

  • Bonobo: Find food in canopy (25-40m high), 57% diet from fruit, but supplemented with leaves, honey, eggs, and meat from small vertebrates e.g. anomalures, flying squirrels and duikers

  • Congolese people: Reliant on bush meat for protein (Bonobo's and gorillas) and use leaves and rots for over 50 traditonal medicines 

  • Moabi Tree: Key food source for elephants

  • Elephants: Distribute moabi seeds 

11

What is the value of he Congo Basin Rainforest?

  • Home to ½ of elephants on continent, most gorillas, Bonobo and Okapi reliant on the forest

  • Key store of carbon - 22.9 gigatons of carbon stored in DRC

  • Tin, Coltan(80% of worlds coltan)

  • Indigenous tribes live off rainforest e.g bush beat. Also place of refuge in the times of strife 

12

What are the threats to the Congo Basin Rainforest?

  • Deforestation (Logging, mining, agriculture): 

             Deforestation rate: between 0.15 and 0.20% per year (250,000 to                 300,000 hectares)

             Currently estimated that 30% of the Congo rainforest will have                       disappeared by 2030

  • Poaching: Since 1980, the Central African Elephant population has declined by 62% (due to demand for ivory)

  • Bush meat trade: Up to 1.7 million tonnes of bushmeat are harvested annually 

13

Positives of Virunga National Park (management)

Virunga National Park: 

  • The ranger force and improved surveillance stop illegal logging and poaching in the park’s 7800 km2
  • Increase in tourist activities will provide income for locals
  • 60,000 new jobs by 2025
  • Improved drinking water, health and education for 4 million people by 2025

14

Positives of Sustainable Forest Certification (management)

Sustainable Forest Certification: 

  • Internationally renowned for transparency and quality of work. They are independent and so free from corruption in govt
  • FSC criteria includes whether the rights of local and indigenous peoples are respected and whether there are safe working conditions. 
  • The GFTN train local communities
  • 5 million hectares of rainforest have been FSC certified (an area larger than the Netherlands)

15

Positives of World Bank Funding (management) 

World Bank Funding:

  • ​Reduced deforestation due to kerosene stoves and alternative farming methods = 4.5 million tonnes reduction in CO2 equivalent
  • Improved quality cooking stoves for people in Kinshasa

16

Negatives of Virunga National Park (management)

Virunga National Park:

  • In 1994, the Rwandan genocide saw more than one million refugees place tremendous pressure on the park forests
  • In 2007, members of an illegal charcoal mafia murdered a family of mountain gorillas
  • Management problems - the Congolese Institute for Nature Conservation (ICCN) are in charg

17

Negatives of Sustainable Forest Certification (management)

Sustainable Forest Certification:

  • GFTN only monitors logging, doesn’t prevent logging
  • Independent audits of the GFTN saw them to mismanage much of the donated money.
  • The GFTN give countries a 5 year grace period when they join when there is still no punishment for illegal logging

18

Negatives of World Bank Funding (management)

World Bank Funding:

  • Money is channelled through the government which has a poor record for corruption
  • Focus on Kinshasa when 60% of the DRC lives in rural areas