Echocardiography Flashcards Preview

MD3001 - Cardiology Clinical > Echocardiography > Flashcards

Flashcards in Echocardiography Deck (30)
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1

What is ECHO

Use of ultrasound to examine the heart

2

What is the signficance of ECHO?

First exam choice for evaulating cardiac structure and function in most clinical conditions

3

What is the linear-array transducer used for?

superficial structures; nerves and vessels

High frequency sound doesnt penetrate deep

4

What is the curved-array transducer used for?

  • endoluminal scanning
  • general abdomen and obstetrical scanning

5

What shape is the curved array transducer?

curved convex shape

6

What is significant about phased array transducers?

Every element in the array participates in the formation of each transmitted pulse

7

What are the probe manipulation manouveres?

PART

  • pressure
  • alignment
  • rotation
  • tilting

8

What is the optimal transducer for a transthoracic echo?

ohased array with the frequency of 1-5MHz

9

Where is the conventional echo oreintation marker located?

to the upper right of the ultrasound image

10

What is an imaging window?

anatomic position on the patients body where an ultrasound transducer is placed to visualise specific structures

11

What are the 3 imaging windows in cardiac ECHO?

  • Parasternal
  • Apical
  • Subcostal

12

Where is the transducer placed to view the parasternal long axis?

3-4th intercostal space with orientation marker point towards the patients right shoulder

13

What can be viewed in the parasternal long axis?

  • Right ventricle
  • Left ventricle
  • Ascending aorta
  • Aortic valve
  • mitral valve
  • pericardium

14

How do you view the parasternal short axis from the parasternal long axis

rotate the transducer 90degrees clockwise. Orientation marker is pointing to the patients left shoulder. Transducer is perpendicular to the chest wall

15

What can be viewed in the parasternal short axis at papillary muscle level?

  • Right ventricle
  • interventricular septum
  • Left ventricle
  • Mitral valve
  • Pericardium

16

What is m-mode?

designed to document and analyse tissue motion

17

Where is the transducer placed for the apical four-chamber (A4C)

apical impulse. Transducer marker is at 3 oclock

18

What can be viewed in the A4C?

  • RV
  • LV
  • RA
  • LV
  • MV
  • TV

19

How do you get to the A5C from the A4C?

tilt the face of the transdycer slightly upward until the aortic valve appears. Orientation marker is at 3 oclock

20

How is the patient lying for a subcostal four chamber view?

supine

21

Where is the transducer placed for a subcostal 4 chamber view?

2-3cm below the xyphoid process and direct towards the patients chin/left shoulder

22

What can be viewed in a subcostal 4 chamber view?

  • LV
  • RV
  • LA
  • RA
  • MV
  • TV
  • pericardium

23

Where is the subcostal inferior vena cava view?

rotate the transducer 90 degree anticlockwise from the subcostal 4 chamber view always keeping the RA on the screen. Orientation marker is at 12 oclock

24

What does Basic Echo give?

comprehensive structural and functionak assessment of the heart

25

What measurements can be made in the parasternal view?

  • aortic blulb
  • left atrium
  • IV septum
  • LV - end diastolic diameter
  • Posterior wall
  • LV -end systolic diameter

26

What way should measurements be taken?

peripendicular to the main axis of the vessel, a chamber or atria

27

What is Marfan's syndrome?

CT disorder that can affect the eyes, skeletal systen, lungs, heart and blood vessels

28

What are the cardiac complications of Marfan's syndrome?

  • Dilation of ascending and sometimes descending aorta
  • incompetence of aortic and mitral valves
  • Aneurysm
  • Dissection of the aorta

29

What is the purpose of neonatal echcardiography?

detection of duct dependent congenital heart disease

30

Why take a transoesophgeal echocardiogram?

to see the heart in more detail