What is ECHO
Use of ultrasound to examine the heart
What is the signficance of ECHO?
First exam choice for evaulating cardiac structure and function in most clinical conditions
What is the linear-array transducer used for?
superficial structures; nerves and vessels
High frequency sound doesnt penetrate deep
What is the curved-array transducer used for?
- endoluminal scanning
- general abdomen and obstetrical scanning
What shape is the curved array transducer?
curved convex shape
What is significant about phased array transducers?
Every element in the array participates in the formation of each transmitted pulse
What are the probe manipulation manouveres?
What is the optimal transducer for a transthoracic echo?
ohased array with the frequency of 1-5MHz
Where is the conventional echo oreintation marker located?
to the upper right of the ultrasound image
What is an imaging window?
anatomic position on the patients body where an ultrasound transducer is placed to visualise specific structures
What are the 3 imaging windows in cardiac ECHO?
Where is the transducer placed to view the parasternal long axis?
3-4th intercostal space with orientation marker point towards the patients right shoulder
What can be viewed in the parasternal long axis?
- Right ventricle
- Left ventricle
- Ascending aorta
- Aortic valve
- mitral valve
How do you view the parasternal short axis from the parasternal long axis
rotate the transducer 90degrees clockwise. Orientation marker is pointing to the patients left shoulder. Transducer is perpendicular to the chest wall
What can be viewed in the parasternal short axis at papillary muscle level?
- Right ventricle
- interventricular septum
- Left ventricle
- Mitral valve
What is m-mode?
designed to document and analyse tissue motion
Where is the transducer placed for the apical four-chamber (A4C)
apical impulse. Transducer marker is at 3 oclock
What can be viewed in the A4C?
How do you get to the A5C from the A4C?
tilt the face of the transdycer slightly upward until the aortic valve appears. Orientation marker is at 3 oclock
How is the patient lying for a subcostal four chamber view?
Where is the transducer placed for a subcostal 4 chamber view?
2-3cm below the xyphoid process and direct towards the patients chin/left shoulder
What can be viewed in a subcostal 4 chamber view?
Where is the subcostal inferior vena cava view?
rotate the transducer 90 degree anticlockwise from the subcostal 4 chamber view always keeping the RA on the screen. Orientation marker is at 12 oclock
What does Basic Echo give?
comprehensive structural and functionak assessment of the heart
What measurements can be made in the parasternal view?
- aortic blulb
- left atrium
- IV septum
- LV - end diastolic diameter
- Posterior wall
- LV -end systolic diameter
What way should measurements be taken?
peripendicular to the main axis of the vessel, a chamber or atria
What is Marfan's syndrome?
CT disorder that can affect the eyes, skeletal systen, lungs, heart and blood vessels
What are the cardiac complications of Marfan's syndrome?
- Dilation of ascending and sometimes descending aorta
- incompetence of aortic and mitral valves
- Dissection of the aorta
What is the purpose of neonatal echcardiography?
detection of duct dependent congenital heart disease
Why take a transoesophgeal echocardiogram?
to see the heart in more detail