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Flashcards in ECGs Deck (27)
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1

What is the cut off heart rate for a tachycardia?

100bpm

2

What is the cut off heart rate for a bradycardia?

50bpm

3

How long is a narrow complex tachycardia?

Less than 120ms

4

How long is a broad complex tachycardia?

Greater than 120ms

5

Give examples of a narrow complex tachycardia

AF
Atrial flutter
Sinus tachycardia
Re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT, AVRT)

6

Give examples of a broad complex tachycardia

Ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular tachycardia
Torsades de pointes

7

Give examples of rhythms without a p wave

AF
Atrial flutter
VF
VT

8

How do you recognise LAD?

Most positive QRS complex in lead aVL

9

How do you recognise RAD?

Most positive QRS in lead III or aVF

10

What does a bifid p wave mean?

P mitrale
= left atrial enlargement

Due to prolongation of atrial depolarisation

11

How long is the PR interval meant to be?

3-5 squares
= 0.12-0.2ms

12

What causes a long PR interval?

Heart blocks

13

How is the PR interval measured

Beginning of P to start of Q

14

Describe first degree heart block

PR interval longer than 5 squares (0.2s)

15

Describe mobitz I heart block

Gradual lengthening of PR interval, then p wave with no QRS complex

16

Deprive mobitz II heart block

Long PR interval with dropped QRS complexes

17

Describe third degree heart block

No relationship between P and QRS

18

State the system for descibnig ECGs

name, correct recording
rate
rhythm
axis
p waves
PR interval
QRS complex
ST segment
T waves

19

How do you calculate the rate on an ECG

300/no of large squares in R-R interval

OR

6 x no of QRS complexes

20

What can cause right axis deviation

right ventricular hypertrophy

21

What can cause left axis deviation

LBBB
left anterior hemiblock
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome* - right-sided accessory pathway
hyperkalaemia

22

what can cause a shortened PR interval

if the p wave originates closer to the AVN
accessory pathway

23

What is R wave progression

S wave > R wave in leads V1-V3
changes to S wave < R wave in lead V4 in healthy heart

24

What is the ST segment

end of S to start of T

25

What causes tall T waves

hyperkalaemia
hyperacute STEMI

26

what causes inverted T waves

ischaemia
bundle branch block
PE
left ventricular hypertrophy

27

What can cause poor R wave progression

old MI
LBBB
LVH
WPW