ECG Interpretation Flashcards Preview

MD3001 - Cardiology Clinical > ECG Interpretation > Flashcards

Flashcards in ECG Interpretation Deck (73)
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1

What is important when idetifying an ECG?

Confirm the patients name and age along with the ECG date

2

What is the standardisation of an ECG?

  • 1cm = 1mV
  • Paper speed = 25mm/sec

3

How is the rate of an ECG calculated?

300 divided by the number of big squares per R-R interval

4

What ECG lead is used to calculate the rate?

Lead II

5

What is normal rate?

60-100bpm

6

Bradycardia

<60 bpm

7

Tachycardia

>100 bpm

8

What does an ECG record?

electrical impulses start and how they flow through the heart.

9

Where does the elctrical activity of the heart start?

"internal pacemaker" called the sinoatrial node

10

What is normal rhythm referred to as?

sinus rhythm

11

What is conduction?

The way electrical impulses floe through the heart

12

When should you take an ECG?

  • Chest pain
  • Palpitations
  • breathlessness
  • dizziness
  • an episode of synocope (blackout)
  • unexplained fall
  • Stroke
  • TIA

13

What plane do the chest leads look at the heart from?

horizontal

14

What plane do the 6 limb leads look at the heart from?

vertical

15

What is sinus rhythm?

  • Normal P waves (2.5 boxes)
  • Normal QRS complex (3 boxes)
  • One P wave followed by one QRS complex

16

How do you check if rhythm is regular?

Mark position of 3 successive R waves.

Slide the mark forward and check that intervals are equal

17

Characteristics of Atrial Fibrillation

  • No discernible P waves
  • Irregular QRS complex

18

Charactertistics of Atrial Flutter

  • P waves can be seen at a rate of 300bpm, giving a saw-toothed appearance
  • 4 P waves per QRS complex
  • Ventricular activation is regular

19

Characteristics of Nodal Rhythm

  • Normal QRS complex
  • P waves are absent

20

Another name for nodal rhythm

Junctional Tachycardia

21

Characteristics of Ventricular Rhythm

  • two sinus beats and the rate increases to 150bpm
  • QRS complex becomes broad and T waves are difficult to identify
  • Final beat shows a return to sinus rhythm

22

What does the P wave represent?

Atrial depolarisation

23

In what leads in the P wave upright?

  • II
  • III
  • AVF

24

In what conditions are P waves absent?

  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Nodal (junctional) rhythm

25

What is the maximum height of a P wave?

2.5 boxes

26

What occurs in abnormal P wave; P-Mitrale

2 P waves per QRS complex

27

What causes a bifid P wave?

left atrial hypertrophy

28

What occurs in abnormal P waves; P-Pulmonale

P wave is too tall

29

What causes a peaked P wave?

Right atrial hypertrophy

30

What is the P-R interval

Bgeining of P wave to the beginning of Q wave