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Flashcards in DSM Deck (41)
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Autistic Disorder vs. Asperger’s Disorder

Autistic Disorder:
• Before age 3
• Not much language development

Asperger’s Disorder:
• Later onset after age 3
• There is Language development -- may be talkative
• Lack of social skills and understanding of cues


Rett’s Disorder vs. Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS

Rett’s Disorder:
• Mostly effects girls
• Growth slows down around 18 months
• Severe retardation
• Enlarged head

Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS:
• On the spectrum but downs' meet criteria
• Some social difficulties


Learning Disorder vs. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Learning Disorder:
• Psych test is needed to rule out.
• Processing issues
• Reading issues re: phonics - trouble sounding out and recognizing symbols/letters

• Prior to age 7
• Symptoms in two different settings where they are required to pay attention
• Inability to stay seated
• Excessive talking and interrupting
• Inability to focus and concentrate
• Disorganized
• Can't finish homework
• fighting and irritability (rule out depression in kids)


Pica vs. Rumination Disorder

Eating dirt etc

Rumination Disorder:
• Re-chewing food
• Partially digested food comes back up and is re


Expressive Language Disorder vs. Phonological Disorder

Expressive Language Disorder:
• Need psych test
• difficulty with new rods
• socially well adjusted

Phonological Disorder:
• Speech and articulation difficulties
• Difficult to understand


Tourette’s Disorder vs. Transient Tic Disorder

Tourette’s Disorder:
• Symptoms for at least one year
• physical and vocal tick
• Requires a vocal tick

Transient Tic Disorder:
• less that one year
• need not be vocal


Encopresis vs. Enuresis

• 4 year plus inappropriate poop control

• At least five years old
• Bed wetting or cloth wetting


Separation Anxiety Disorder vs. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Separation Anxiety Disorder:
• Anxiety of separation from object
• From home
• Fear of kidnap
• Nightmares
• Fear of being alone at home
• Somatic complaints
• Fear harm may come to object

Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
• Pervasive anxiety
• Symptoms for six months
• Worry and perseveration about daily things

IF less than 6 months Generalized Anxiety disorder NOS


Selective Mutism vs. Social Phobia

Selective Mutism:
• Rare anxiety
• Refuse to speak in certain situations

Social Phobia:
• Fear of being in social situations


Reactive Attachment Disorder: Inhibited Type vs. Disinhibited Type (Both early attachment disruption) From abuse, neglect, too much foster shuffling.

Reactive Attachment Disorder Inhibited:
• Afraid to attach to object
• Stay by themselves
• Or have given up that attachment is possible
Reactive Attachment Disorder Disinhibited:
• No borders.
• Crawl into a strangers lap
• So many care givers that they attach anywhere


Oppositional Defiant Disorder vs. Conduct Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder:
• Negative hostile, defiant, violent with authority
• Irritable and argumentative (RO depression)

Conduct Disorder
• Basic disregard for the rights of others and societal norms
• Violations of property, Lying, Vandalism, violence
• Law is involved.


Brief Psychotic Disorder vs. Schizophreniform Disorder vs. Schizophrenia vs Schizoaffective Disorder

Brief Psychotic Disorder:
• Less that a month

Schizophreniform Disorder
• Less than 6 months

* Symptoms for over 6 months

Schizoaffective Disorder
• Psychotic base with Mood disorder symptoms.

Positive Symptoms:
• Delusions - bizarre and non bizarre
• Hallucinations
• Disorganized thinking

Negative Symptoms
• Affect flattening
• Poverty of speech
• avoliation - can't initiate and follow through


Major Depressive Disorder vs. Depressive Disorder NOS vs. Dysthymic Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder:
• At least 2 weeks
• Changes in appetite
• Changes in Sleep
• irritability
• Anger
• Worthlessness and guilt
• Changes in biological functions
• Difficult concentration
• Reduced ability to function
• Clear marked impact on life

Depressive Disorder NOS:
• Lighter more mild

Dysthymic Disorder
• for at least 2 years
• Children under 18 = 1 year


Bipolar I Disorder vs. Bipolar II Disorder vs. Cyclothymic Disorder

Bipolar I Disorder:
• Full Manic Episode for at least a week or more and
• cause difficulty or impairment in their social functioning — • racing thoughts, rapid speech, hyperactive, elevated, irritable mood, hyper sexual

Bipolar II Disorder:
• Episode of Hypo Manic phase for min of 4 days.
• Different than usual mood.
• And also episode of major depression.

Cyclothymic Disorder:
• Hypo mania and depression NOS - milder depression.
• These are milder and so may not interfere as fully with their lives.
• Mild up and down but noticeable.


Schizoaffective Disorder vs. Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features

Schizoaffective Disorder:

Schizoaffective disorder is a condition in which a person experiences a combination of schizophrenia symptoms — such as hallucinations or delusions — and mood disorder symptoms, such as mania or depression.

A. An uninterrupted period of illness during which, at some time, there is either:

a Major Depressive Episode,
a Manic Episode, or
a Mixed Episode
concurrent with symptoms that meet (4) Criterion A for Schizophrenia.

Note: The Major Depressive Episode must include depressed mood.

Two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated):

disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence)
grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
negative symptoms, i.e., affective flattening, alogia, or avolition


Bereavement vs. Major Depressive Disorder vs. Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood

• Less that 2 months

Major Depressive Disorder:
• At least 2 weeks
• Changes in appetite
• Changes in Sleep
• irritability
• Anger
• Worthlessness and guilt
• Changes in biological functions
• Difficult concentration
• Reduced ability to function
• Clear marked impact on life

Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood
• Actual stressor
• Symptoms come on within 3 months
• Not in response to a death


Panic Disorder Without Agoraphobia vs. Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia

Panic Disorder Without Agoraphobia:
• Unexpected sudden onset of panic attack
• heart pounding
• Fear of dying
• chocking
• physical experience

Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia:
• At least one attack and persistent fear that it may happen again
• Fear of going out in public for this reason


Specific Phobia vs. Social Phobia

Specific Phobia:
• Marked and persistent fear of something ordinary

Social Phobia
• Anxiety in social or performance situations
• Triggered by new place


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder vs. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
• Obsessive thoughts or images (hand and germs)
• Compulsive actions in respond to obsession in order to remove the anxiety (washing hands)
• perseverates and can't ignore - ego dystonic

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder:
• Control freak
• perfectionism
• hyper detail oriented
• Not aware = ego syntonic


Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) vs. Acute Stress Disorder vs. Adjustment Disorder With Anxiety

(Stress Disorder = re-experieinceing in obtrusive manor a traumatic event)
• Intrusive memories
• Nightmares
• feeling it's reoccurring
• hyper vigilance
• Startle response
• reliving of the event
• numbing effect - numbing
• avoiding situations for fear of the event
• difficulty concentrating
• Difficulty falling asleep

• 1 month plus
• less that a month
Adjustment Disorder With Anxiety
• not reliving event


Generalized Anxiety Disorder vs. Anxiety Disorder NOS vs. Adjustment Disorder With Anxiety


• Excessive anxiety and worry, about the future, apprehension, more days than not in more than one setting. • Difficulty controlling the worry. Restlessness. Easily fatigues. Mind going blank. Difficulty concentrating.
Problems sleeping, Muscle tension, Waking prematurely.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
• Present for at least 6 months

Anxiety Disorder NOS:
• Less that six months..


Delirium vs. Dementia

Delirium: needs immediate medical attention
• Cognitive impairment confusion with rapid onset
• Clouding of consciousness
• usually related to illness or medication
• Altered state of consciousness -- talking screaming
• in hospital setting

• Irreversible impairment of cognitive function
• Short term memory loss
• Gradual onset like Alzheimers
• Can come from stroke


Somatization Disorder vs. Conversion Disorder vs. Hypochodriasis

Somatization Disorder:
• history of multiple physical complaints
• before age 30
• multiples doctors for multiple things
• across the board issues including gastro-intestinal
• sexual issue
• can't be fully explained by a medical condition.
• social or occupational impairment results

Conversion Disorder:
• Psychological factors convert to a physical symptom
• Blind rage
• Losing motor ability

• persistent belief that they have a disease despite proof the the contrary.
• Don't believe when the doctor tells them there is nothing wrong.
• obsession - despite full symptomology


Factitious Disorder vs. Malingering vs. Münchausen Syndrome by Proxy

Factitious Disorder:
• Person acts as if ill, fakes it because they like the attention of being the patient.

• Faking the symptoms to get an external gain
• Disability payments for example.

Münchausen Syndrome by Proxy:
• Parent believes that the child is ill - secondary gain.
• Can make the kids sick to be able to bring them in.


Anorexia Nervosa vs. Bulimia Nervosa

Anorexia Nervosa:
• Body weight of less than 85%
• Overwhelming fear of ganging weight
• markedly thin
• Restricting type
• can lose period
• can have purging

Bulimia Nervosa:
• Binge eating, purging or non purging type
• If there is no binging it is ED NOS


Eating Disorder NOS vs. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Eating Disorder NOS:
• Throwing up
• Not binging
• having body issues
• Not low weight

Body Dysmorphic Disorder


Depersonalization Disorder vs. Dissociative Amnesia

Depersonalization Disorder:
• Persistent or recurrent experience of feeling detached from oneself or from the outside observer.
• causes clinically significant distress or impairment ins social, occupational or other important areas of functioning

Dissociative Amnesia
• inability to recall import an persona, autobiographical information.


Dissociative Fugue vs. Dissociative Identity Disorder

Dissociative Fugue
• fugue - found in the park and can't remember who he is

Dissociative Identity Disorder:
• Multiple personalities show up (used to be multiple personality disorder)


Sexual Aversion Disorder vs. Dyspareunia vs. Vaginismus

Sexual Aversion Disorder:
• Aversion to sexual experience
• lack of desire

• Pain during sex for both man or woman

• A spasm in the outer wall of the vagina that makes it difficult or painful to have intercourse.


Primary insomnia vs. Primary Hypersomnia

Primary insomnia:
• at least one month
• Difficulty going to sleep and maintaing sleep
• Distress in social or occupational functioning
• not associated with any other diagnosis

Primary Hypersomnia:
• at least one month
• Oversleep, difficulty getting up
• Stress in emotional or occupational
• Distress in social or occupational functioning
• not associated with any other diagnosis