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Flashcards in Dopamine Regulation Deck (36)
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1

CNS what does ACh and dopamine do respectively?

ACh - excitatory input
Dopamine - Tonic inhibition

2

Parkinson's is an imbalance between ACh and Dopamine in what two regions?

Corpus striatum
substantia nigra

3

MOtor signs and symptoms of Parkinson's?

tremor
regidity
bradykinesia
festinating gait

4

Facial and speech changes with Parkinson's?

face-impassive/no blinking
speech - monotonous

5

Non-motor signs and symptoms of Parkinson's?

cognition
depression/anxiety
olfactory deficiencies
Bowel and Bladder
fatigue/sleep
pain

6

which nerves degenerate in Parkinson's?

dopaminergic nerves in substantia nigra (presence of Lewy bodies)

7

how much substantia nigra do you need to lose to get symptoms?

~80%

8

Main Management of Parkinson's is?

Drugs: symptomatic relief

9

what Drugs to restore striatum balance?

cholinergic antagonists to allow increase in Dopamine

10

4 way to restore dopamine deficiency:

increase synthesis
increase release
Receptor agonist
Reduce metabolism of D

11

if you ingest pure dopamine:

vomit

12

dopamine crosses BBB?

Nope.

13

L-DOPA in the body, what happens?

90% of it metabolised in periphery

14

How to prevent L-DOPA metabolism in periphery?

combine with inhibitor of peripheral DOPA decarboxylase

15

what do you need in order for L-DOPA to work?

need some functional dopaminergic neurons

16

what happens once you start L-DOPA? why?

increase degen of the neurons possibly due to increased oxidative stress

17

Levodopa ingestion you get what phenomenon?

on-off

18

Levodopa absorption/half-life? continued usage?

1. rapid absorption
2. 1-2hr half-life
3. effectiveness declines with time

19

Levodopa drug interactions? 4 big ones

1. vitamin B6
2. MAOa inhibitors
3. inhaled anaesthetics
4. anticonvulsants/neuroleptics

20

adverse effects of Levodopa?

Anorexia/nausea/vomiting
depression/anxiety
visual/auditory hallucinations

21

what kind of drug preferred in younger patients?

dopamine agonists

22

What to use to decrease dopamine metabolism? 2 of them.

1. MAO(B) inhibitors (Selegiline)
-may reduce free radicals, use early

2. COMT inhibitors

23

What is Amantadine?

type of flu antiviral that enhances dopamine release, less efficacious than L-DOPA

24

When to take muscarinic receptor antagonists to restore dopa-ACh imblance?

adjunct to Levodopa only

25

what are the classic anti-muscarinic side effects?

1. reduced SLUD
2. dry mouth
3. memory impairment

26

Next 5 years for Parkinson's include 3 things

1. adenosine R antagonists
2. glutamate reduction

27

next 5-10 years for parkinson's. 2 things:

1. deep brain stim
2. Optogenetics (modulating genes with light pulses)

28

10-20 years for parkinson's: 2 things.

1. genetics
2. stem cell replacement

29

what fibril is found in Lewy bodies in Parkinson's?

a-synuclein

30

what organelle is implicated in Parkinson's?

Mitochondria damage