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Flashcards in Directional Terms Deck (33)
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1

What is the definition of a Plane?

A Plane is a surface, real or imaginary, along which any two points can be connected by a straight line

2

What is the definition of the Median Plane?

The Median Plane divides the head, body, or limb longitudinally into equal right and left halves

3

What is the definition of the Sagittal Plane?

The Sagittal Plane passes through the head, body, or limb parallel to the median plane

4

What is the definition of the Transverse Plane?

The Transverse Plane cuts across the head, body, or limb at a right angle to its long axis or across the long axis of an organ or part

5

What is the definition of the Dorsal Plane?

The Dorsal Plane runs at right angles to the median and transverse planes, and this divides the body or head into dorsal and ventral portions

6

What is the definition of Dorsal?

Toward or relatively near the back and corresponding surface of the head, neck, and tail; on the limbs, it applies to the upper or front surface of the carpus, tarsus, metapodium, and digits (opposite to the side with the pads)

7

What is the definition of Ventral?

Toward or relatively near the belly and the corresponding surface of the head, neck, thorax, and tail.

This term is never used for the limbs.

8

What is the definition of Medial?

Toward or relatively near the median plane

9

What is the definition of Lateral?

Away from or relatively farther from the median plane

10

What is the definition of Cranial?

Toward or relatively near the head; on the limbs, it applies proximal to the carpus and tarsus.

When referring to the head it is replaced by the term rostral

11

What is the definition of Rostral?

Toward or relatively near the nose; applies to the head only

12

What is the definition of Caudal?

Toward or relatively near the tail; on the limbs, it applies proximal to the carpus and tarsus.

Also used in reference to the head

13

What is the definition of Internal or Inner?

Close to, or in the direction of, the centre of an organ, body cavity, or structure

14

What is the definition of External or Outer?

Away from the centre of an organ or structure

15

What is the definition of Superficial?

Relatively near the surface of the body or the surface of an organ

16

What is the definition of Deep?

Relatively near the centre of the body or the centre of a solid organ

17

What is the definition of Proximal?

Relatively near the main mass or origin; in the limbs and tail, the attached end

18

What is the definition of Distal?

Away from the main mass or origin; in the limbs and tail, the free end

19

What is the definition of Radial?

On that side of the forearm (antebrachium) in which the radius is located

20

What is the definition of Ulnar?

On that side of the forearm (antebrachium) in which the ulna is located

21

What is the definition of Tibial and Fibular?

On the corresponding sides of the leg (crus), the tibial side being medial and the fibular side being lateral

22

What is the definition of Palmar?

Palmar is the aspect of the forepaw on which the pads are located - the surface that contacts the ground in the standing animal - and the corresponding surface of the metapodium and carpus

23

What is the definition of Plantar?

Plantar is the aspect of the hindpaw on which the pads are located - the surface that contacts the ground in the standing animal - and the corresponding surface of the metapodium and tarsus.

The opposite surface of both forepaw and hindpaw is known as the dorsal surface

24

What is the definition of Axis?

Axis is the central line of the body or any of its parts

25

What is the definition of Axial/Abaxial?

Axial/Abaxial means of, pertaining to, or relative to this axis.

In referring to the digits, the functional axis of the limb passes between the third and fourth digits.

The axial surface of the digit faces the axis, and the abaxial surface faces away from the axis

26

What is the definition of Flexion?

Flexion is the movement of one bone in relation to another in such a manner that the angle formed at their joint is reduced

The limb is retracted or folded; the digit is bent; the back is arched dorsally

27

What is the definition of Extension?

Extension is the movement of one bone upon another such that the angle formed at their joint increases.

The limb reaches out or is extended; the digit is straightened; the back is straightened,

Extension beyond 180 degrees is overextension

28

What is the definition of Abduction?

Abduction is the movement of a part away from the median plane

29

What is the definition of Adduction?

Adduction is the movement of a part toward the median plane

30

What is the definition of Circumduction?

Circumduction is the movement of a part when outlining the surface of a cone (e.g. the arm extended drawing a circle)