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NCLEX-RN (1) Fundamentals > Diagnostic Tests > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diagnostic Tests Deck (67)
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1

What is informed consent and who signs it?

Informed consent is the form that the client signs before an invasive procedure that indicates that the client understands the risks of the procedures as explained by the HCP.

The client signs the form and the nurse can sign as a witness.

2

Can the nurse explain the risks of a procedure to a client?

No. The nurse cannot explain the risks of a procedure to a client. That is the HCP's responsibility. 

The nurse does need to know what the risks are in order to provide appropriate interventions. 

 

3
Define:

NPO

NPO means nothing by mouth:

  • the client is not allowed to eat or drink
  • NPO is very common before diagnostic tests, procedures, and surgeries

 

4

What is conscious sedation?

Conscious sedation is a combination of medicines to help the client relax (a sedative) and to block pain (an anesthetic) during a medical or dental procedure.

The client may still be awake, but may not be able to speak.

 

5

What is an Ultrasound?

An ultrasound is an image of a part of the body using sound waves.

6

What is an Echocardiogram?

An echocardiogram is an ultrasound of the heart.

 

7

What is an X-ray?

An x-ray is an image of a part of the body using radiation.

They are best for finding broken bones, tumors, dental decay, and the presence of foreign bodies.

8

What is a Computed tomography scan (CT scan)?

a CT scan is multiple images on any part of the body using radiation that is more detailed than an x-ray.

  • typically lasts 5 minutes
  • good for seeing organs and bony detail
  • machine is "donut-shaped"
  • may use contrast dye

9

What is a Magnetic resonance image (MRI)?

An MRI is multiple images on any part of the body using magnetic fields. It does not use radiation.

  • can last 30 minutes or more
  • good for seeing soft tissue
  • machine is "tanning-bed" shaped

10

What is a Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)?

An MRA is multiple images of blood vessels (arteries) using magnetic fields. 

It may or may not have contrast dye.

11

What is a Positron emission tomography scan (PET scan)?

A PET scan is multiple images of a part of the body that uses a special dye with radioactive tracers that the client swallows, inhales or gets injected into the arm depending on the area of the body.

It can show abnormalities at the cellular level such as cancer.

  • It can take 30-60 minutes
  • machine looks like a CT scan (donut-shaped)

12

What does an MRI machine look like?

It looks like a big tube!

MRIs take around 40 minutes to complete.

13

What does a CT scanner look like?

It looks like a big donut!

A CT scan takes about 5 minutes to complete. 

14

What type of client canNOT get an x-ray?

Pregnant clients canNOT get an x-ray due to radiation to the fetus​.

15

What needs to be removed before getting an x-ray?

Any metal or jewelry needs to be removed before an x-ray because it interferes with the image.

16

What is central venous pressure (CVP)?

CVP is blood pressure in the vena cava, which is blood returning to the right atrium. It is used to determine the severity of heart failure.

  • The right atrium is the chamber where deoxygenated blood goes so it can go to the right ventricle, then into the lungs to get oxygenated again
  • normal value: 0 - 8 cm H2O
  • the higher the number the more fluid back-up and pressure

17

What is an Endoscopy and Bronchoscopy?

Both are procedures to diagnose abnormalities.

  • an endoscopy looks at the digestive tract and goes down the esophagus
  • bronchoscopy looks at the respiratory system and goes down the trachea

An endoscope or bronchoscope is a flexible tubing with a camera/scope on the end that is inserted into the mouth to visualize the insides of a client.​

 

18

What are the pre-procedure interventions for an endoscopy or bronchoscopy?

 

Endoscopy or Bronchoscopy

  • Pre-procedure interventions:
    • invasive: get informed consent
    • NPO at midnight
    • give meds for conscious sedation

19

What are the post-procedure interventions for an endoscopy or bronchoscopy?

 

Endoscopy or bronchoscopy

  • Post-procedure interventions:
    • check gag reflex afterward (will come back in 2 hours)
    • monitor for signs of perforation and bleeding

20

What is a Colonoscopy?

 

A colonoscopy is a flexible tubing with a camera/scope on the end inserted into the colon and large intestine.

21

What are the pre-procedure interventions for a colonoscopy?

Colonoscopy

  • Pre-procedure interventions:
    • invasive: get informed consent
    • give polyethylene glycol (GoLytely) to clean out bowels
    • liquid diet 24 hours before procedure and NPO at midnight
    • give meds for conscious sedation
    • monitor for fluid and electrolyte imbalances

22

What are the post-procedure interventions for a colonoscopy?

Colonoscopy

  • Post-procedure interventions:
    • monitor for signs of perforation and bleeding

23

What are signs of perforation for procedures that involve scopes?

Signs of perforation from a scope:

  • pain
  • bleeding
    • increased HR and decreased BP
  • difficulty swallowing
    • if from an upper scope procedure
  • elevated temperature

24

What type of test has the word "-gram" or "-graphy" in it?

Tests with the word "-gram" or "-graphy" are images of a part of the body with the possible use of dye.

Examples are:

  • CT scan (computed tomography)
  • echocardiogram
  • angiogram
  • intravenous pyelogram

25

What are the pre-procedure interventions for a test that ends in -gram or -graphy?

Test with -gram or -graphy

  • pre-procedure interventions:
    •  if contrast dye is used:
      • assess for iodine/seafood allergies
      • assess kidney function (BUN and creatinine)
      • hold metformin (anti-diabetic) 24 hours before and 48 hours afterward: is toxic to kidneys
      • teach that client may feel a warm sensation as the dye is being injected

26

What are the post-procedure interventions for a test that ends in -gram or -graphy?

Test that ends in -gram or -graphy

  • post-procedure interventions:
    • if contrast dye is used, encourage fluids to flush dye out of kidneys

 

27

What are the pre-procedure interventions for an MRI or MRA?

MRI or MRA

  • pre-procedure interventions:
    • ​no pregnancy
    • no pacemakers or metal
    • assess for claustrophobia
    • give a sedative to calm client

28

What is an electroencephalography (EEG)?

An EEG is electrodes are placed on the scalp to record electrical activity of the brain.

No dye is used.

 

 

29

What are the pre-procedure interventions for an EEG?

EEG

  • pre-procedure interventions:
    • no stimulates or caffeine 24 hours beforehand
    • hold sedatives
    • not NPO, may drink and eat beforehand
    • may be asked to hyperventilate for 3-4 minutes and watch a flashing light to diagnose seizures

30

What are the post-procedure interventions for an EEG?

EEG

  • post-procedure interventions:
    • ​wash hair
    • fall precautions if was sedated