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Flashcards in Development Deck (22)
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What is development?

Improvement in the well-being of a nation's people


Which are some ways to measure/interpret development within a country?

-Economic growth
-Less poverty
-Better income distribution
-Better institutions
-Better fulfillment of rights


Which are some indices to measure economic development?

-GDP per capita
-GDP per capita PPP
-Infant mortality rate
-Maternal mortality rate
-Life expectancy rate
-Adolescent fertility rate
-Adult literacy rate
-Government expenditure per student
-Pupil-teacher ratio


Which factors compose the Human Development Index (HDI)?

-Health (life expectancy)
-Education (mean of years of schooling/expected years of schooling)
-Income (GNI per capita)


Which are some political factors that influence a country's development?

-Insecurity / Security


Which are the steps within the vicious cycle of political instability?

1. Political instability and threat of property violation
2. Low domestic and foreign investment
3. Low or negative growth
4. Poverty and social conflict


Which are some economic factors that may influence a country's development?

-Resource availaibility
-Trade issues
-Informal economy


What does resource availability consist on regarding economic factors that impact development?

-Natural resources
-Labor and human capital
-Physical capital


What is debt?

Utilizing unavailable resources to finance present consumption


Which are some social factors that influence a country's development?

-Gender inequality index


Which are some factors within the educational component that influences development?

-Male education is privileged
-Literacy rates
-Gender discrimination


Which are some factors within the labor component that influences development?

-Low workforce participation
-Glass cieling (trouble climbing up the hierarchy)
-Wage gap
-Unpaid labor


What does the gender inequality index consist of?

-Reproductive health
-Labor market participation


Which are some factors within the health component that influences development?

-Gender-specific forms of violence
-Patterns of disregard for female well-being


How has the World Bank gotten involved within countries' development?

-OP 4.01: environmental assessment (projects must ensure sustainability)

-OP 4.02: involuntary resettlement


What is corruption?

Behavior which deviates from the formal duties of a public role because of private-regarding pecuniary or status gains, or violates rules against the exercise of certain types of private-regarding influence


Which are the three types of corruption?

-Grand corruption: high officials distorting police

-Petty corruption: acts of abuse from officials during their interactions with citizens

-Political corruption: manipulation of policies, institutions and rules


What is transparency?

When political actors are open about their decision-making processes and the public can freely access informaiton about their activities


What are the two dimensions of accountability?

-Answerability: public authorities are obliged to inform other actors about their decisions and justify their decisions to other actors

-Enforcement: public authorities can be punished for violating their public duties


Who do we define as migrants?

Those people whose decision to live in a country different to the one where they were born, was taken freely, for personal convenience, with no external causes


What is known as 'brain drain'?

The flight of human capital from a devveloping country to a developed country


Which are some consequences of migration for the country of origin?

-Government expenditure increase
-Potential returnees
-Prejudice and discrimination