Flashcards in Development Deck (239)
What is attachment?
An emotional tie or relationship between two people shown in their behaviour
What is a bond?
a set of feelings that ties one person to another
What four ways did Maccoby (1980) argue we could see that two people had an attachment?
1. Seeking proximity
2. Distress on separation
3. Joy on reunion
4. General orientation of behaviour towards the other person
How can we observe seeking proximity in babies?
. A young baby will try to maintain proximity to the caregiver by watching them carefully, and howling when they go too far away. An older, more mobile baby will crawl after their attachment figure.
How can be observe distress on separation in babies?
The young infant will show distress when the caregiver leaves even for a short period of time. The older child may miss their parents and feel homesick on a school trip.
How can we observe joy on reunion in babies?
The baby will welcome back their attachment figure often by clinging to them and hugging them even when they have only been gone for five minutes.
How can we observe general orientation towards the other person in babies?
Both the baby and caregiver direct their attention to each other and try to engage each other in activities and interaction.
What is ethology?
The study of animal behaviour. Ethologists observe how animals act and identify the purpose the behaviour is likely to have served in helping survival in the evolutionary past.
How did Lorenz study the rapid formation of attachment in animals?
In a piece of research in 1935, he divided a number of fertile goose eggs randomly into two groups. Half were replaced under their mother and the remaining eggs were kept in an incubator. Lorenz ensured that he was the first, large moving object seen by the incubator group. He found that the goslings formed a rapid attachment to him and would follow him around. A short time after they hatched, he put all the goslings together in a container and released them. They separated rapidly into the two initial groups.
What did Lorenz call the formation of rapid attachments?
What is imprinting?
The tendency to form an attachment to the first large moving object seen after birth.
When did Lorenz say imprinting had to happen?
Within the 'window of development' which he called a critical period,. The strongest tendency to imprint is 13-16 hours after ducklings are hatched, and after 32 hours the tendency to imprint has virtually passed and attachment will not form.
What is a critical period?
A specific period of time in which something has to develop.
What did Klaus and Kennel (1976) test about attachment, and what was the usual practice before them?
They tested the hypothesis that early skin to skin contact led to closer bonds being formed between new mothers and their babies. The usual practice before this experiment was that babies would be removed from their mothers shortly after delivery and kept in a nursery unit to allow their mothers to rest and recover from the birth.
What study did Klaus and Kennel (1976) do on attachment?
They took two groups of young mothers in a North American maternity hospital and followed them from birth until their babies were a year old. The control group had routine contact: they saw their baby after delivery and when they were brought in for feeds. The experimental group had extended contact: they had one extra hour of 'skin to skin contact' after the birth and then an extra five hours of contact over the next three days. THey visited the moths and babies after one month and again after one year.
What were the results of Klaus and Kennel's (1976) study on attachment?
They found a variety of differences in the behaviour of the routine and extended contact moths. The extended contact mothers showed more soothing behaviour such as cuddling their babies when they were given a routine medical examination and maintained closer proximity to their babies and gazes at their babies more than the routine group.
What was the conclusion of Klaus and Kennel's (1976) study on attachment?
That these behaviours seemed to indicate that mothers had formed closer bonds with their babies in the extended contact group and indicated that there may be a special time or sensitive period immediately after birth that may be important for bonding to take place.
What is a sensitive period?
A period of time in which something is likely to occur. However, development can take place outside the sensitive period as we can see in studies of older children who have been brought up in isolation but develop language later in children.
What did the findings of Klaus and Kennel's (1976) study on attachment lead to?
Most hospitals adopted the practice of 'rooming in' or keeping babies and their mother together while in hospital. It also implied it would be beneficial for fathers to be present at the birth to give them the chance to form early bonds.
Why has Klaus and Kennel's (1976) study on attachment been criticsed?
It may have lacked validity as the mothers were young, unmarried and came from a disadvantaged North American inner city area. This may have meant that the closer bonds shown by the mothers may have been due insteadto extra attention given to them in the experiment.
Why study did De Chateau et al (1987) do on attachment?
Carried out a similiar study to Klaus and Kennel's, with 42 middle class Swedish mothers and their babies. 20 were given routine contact and 22 extended contact. They found that the extended group held their babies more, gazed at them 36 hours after birth and at 3 months the babies showed more laughing and smiling and less crying.
What study did Schaffer and Emerson (1964) carry out on the development of attachments?
Studied 60 babies in Glasgow, visiting them monthly for the first year of their life and returning again at 18 months. They collected data on attachment by considering separation anxiety and stranger distress, using a variety of methods, including observation and interviewing. At each visit they interviewed the moths, asking them about the baby's response to various situations, and asked them to rate the baby's behaviour in each of these situations using a four point scale, from zero 'no protest' to three 'cries loudly every time.' They also would approach the baby and see if they cried, whimpered or showed signs of distress at a strange face.
What is separation anxiety?
If the baby showed anxiety or distress when the caregiver left them, Separation anxiety indicated that the baby has formed an attachment to the person.
What is stranger distress?
If the baby showed signs of distress when approached by someone they did not know. Distress at strangers shows that the baby can recognise familiar people and feels anxious with those who are unfamiliar.
What did Schaffer and Emerson's (1964) study suggest attachment took place?
Found that attachment behaviours develop in stages loosely linked to age Most babies started to show separation anxiety at 6-8 months, indicating an attachment had been formed. Fear of strangers tended to follow a month. After the first attachment was formed, most babies went on to form multiple attachments with a variety of people.
What did Schaffer and Emerson's (1964) study suggest babies form their first attachment do?
Majority (65%) the first attachment figure with their mother, Fathers were the first attachment figure with only 3% of babies and just over a quarter of babies (27%) formed 'joint attachments' at the same time. They did not necessarily form attachments to the person who carried out most of the physical care, as in almost 40% the person who cared for the child was not the first attachment figure.
What were the strengths of Schaffer and Emerson's (1964) study on the development of attachment?
1. Used a variety of methods of data, including observation and interview which is very rich in detail.
2. Babies were observed by the researchers in their own homes, and mothers were asked to rate their babies' response to separation in a wide range of everyday situation so high ecological validity.
What were the weaknesses of Schaffer and Emerson's (1964) study on the development of attachment?
The findings reflect the child-rearing practices of the mid 1960's where most childcare was carried out by mothers who were less likely to work outside the home. Today, fathers may be far more likely to be first attachment figures given their greater role today in child-rearing.
What are the four stages that Schaffer and Emerson identified in their study on attachment?
1. Asocial stage (0-6 weeks)
2. Indiscriminate attachments (6 weeks-6 months)
3. Specific attachments (7 months onwards)
4. Multiple attachments (10/11 months onwards)