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Flashcards in Determinants of Food Insecurity Deck (42)
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1

When was the UNICEF framework determined?

- Around 20 years ago
- Result of a long discussion concerning research about child undernutrition and child mortality

2

What did UNICEF recognize for the first time in the report concerning their framework?

That undernutrition remained the main cause for child mortality in the world

3

What are the two components of malnutrition?

- Undernutrition
- Overnutrition

4

According to the UNICEF framework, what are the three types of causes for malnutrition, disability, morbidity and death?

- Basic causes
- Underlying causes
- Immediate causes

5

What are the two types of immediate causes?

- Inadequate Diet
- Disease

6

How are an inadequate diet and disease interrelated?

- Children who are sick lose their appetite
- If the diet is inadequate, the child is more prone to illness

7

What are the three underlying causes?

- Inadequate household food security
- Inadequate care
- Inadequate services and unhealthy environment

8

What may inadequate care refer to?

- Hygiene
- Feeding
- Psychological and social support for cognitive and physical development

9

What are the two basic causes?

- Lack of capital
- Social, economical, and political context

10

What are the five types of capital?

- Financial
- Human
- Physical
- Social
- Natural

11

What is the medicalization of undernutrition? What is the problem?

- Approaches that deal with undernutrition using medical approaches (supplements)
- These approaches are NOT sustainable
- The basic causes MUST be addressed for sustainability

12

What are the three major components of the Determinants of Food Security of Australian Children?

- Food availability
- Food access
- Food utilization

13

The sizes of the components of the Determinants of Food Security of Australian Children depends on what?

On the number of STATEMENTS by the total interviewees

14

Which sub-component was mentioned the most in the Determinants of Food Security of Australian Children?

Nutrition knowledge and cooking skills

15

Where is low nutritional knowledge found?

- In impoverished, low-income populations
- People didn't know how to slice baguette from Panera

16

What are constitutional factors in the Determinants of Health?

- Age
- Sex
- Other constitutional factors (cannot change)

17

What are the effects of individual lifestyle factors? Give an example.

- Might attenuate or worsen the impact of constitutional factors
- Ex: you are aging, but you live a healthy lifestyle.

18

What are the five layers of the determinants of health?

- Constitutional factors
- Individual lifestyle factors
- Social and community networks
- Living and working conditions
- General socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions

19

What are social and community networks?

- Gyms
- Parks
- Roads
- Safe environment to adapt a healthy lifestyle

20

What are living and working conditions?

- Agriculture and food production
- Education
- Work environment
- Unemployment
- Water and sanitation
- Health services
- Housing

21

How does climate change affect food availability?

- Flood and/or drought
- Natural disasters
- More pests (as temperatures increase)

22

How does climate change affect food access?

- Lower agricultural output means lower incomes of farmers
- Increase in food prices
- Lower physical access

23

How does climate change affect food utilization?

- Lower food quality
- Low access to clean water (contamination of water)
- Increased vulnerability to disease

24

How does climate change affect food stability?

- Unpredictable weather conditions
- Damaged infrastructure
- Increasing economic challenges

25

How will climate change affect crops by 2050?

Decline in yields for eight major crops across Africa and South Asia

26

How will climate change affect marine fisheries by 2050?

- Fisheries yield decreases in the tropics (40%)
- Fisheries increase in higher latitudes

27

What may climate change affect in the North?

Traditional foods may disappear

28

What are the consequences of heat and water passing critical thresholds?

- Temperature increase (4oC) endangers ability of farms and ecosystems to adapt
- Water cycles will be very different and less predictable (sea levels rise, glaciers melt)

29

Which country will undergo extreme water stress by 2050?

US

30

How many hectares are lost annually due to drought and desertification?

12 million